CTAN Comprehensive TeX Archive Network

Direc­tory macros/latex/contrib/hyperref

README for hyperref bundle, 2018/02/06


1 Introduction
2 Download
3 Installation
4 Additional Packages
5 New Features
6 Package Compatibility
7 Limitations
8 Hints
9 Authors/Maintainers
10 Bug Reports
11 Known Problems
12 ToDo
13 Versions in TeX distributions


This package is used to emend cross-referencing commands in LaTeX to
produce some sort of \special commands; there are backends for the
\special set defined for HyperTeX dvi processors, for embedded pdfmark
commands for processing by Acrobat Distiller (dvips and dvipsone), for
dviwindo, for pdfTeX, for dvipdfm, for TeX4ht, and for VTEX's pdf and HTML

Included are:
a) `backref' a package by David Carlisle to provide links back from
   bibliography to the main text; these are hypertext links after using
b) nameref' a package to allow reference to the *names* of sections rather
   than their numbers.


`hyperref' is available on CTAN:
Also a ZIP file is provided that contains the files, already sorted
in a TDS tree:
`CTAN:' means one of the `Comprehensive TeX Archive Network'
nodes or one of its mirrors.  This is explained in
The main repository of hyperref is located at github


Installation with ZIP file in TDS format
The ZIP file `hyperref.tds.zip' contains the files sorted
in a TDS tree. Thus you can directly unpack the ZIP file
inside a TDS tree. (See CTAN:tds.zip for an explanation of TDS.)
  cd /...somewhere.../texmf
  unzip /...downloadpath.../hyperref.tds.zip
Do not forget to refresh the file name database of this TDS tree,
  texhash /...somewhere.../texmf
Manual installation
a) Download the hyperref files from CTAN or the TUG server.
   If necessary, unpack them.
b) If directory `beta' exists, replace the files by the counterparts
   in this directory, if you want to use the latest versions.
c) Generate the package and driver files:
     tex hyperref.ins
d) Install the files `*.sty', `*.def', and `*.cfg' in your TDS tree:
     cp *.sty *.def *.cfg TDS:tex/latex/hyperref/
   Replace `TDS:' by the prefix of your TDS tree (texmf directory).
   The exception is bmhydoc.sty, it belongs to the source files
e) Copy the documentation files to "TDS:doc/latex/hyperref/":
   manual.pdf, README, README.pdf, ChangeLog, ChangeLog.pdf,
   slides.pdf, paper.pdf, options.pdf, hyperref.pdf, backref.pdf,
   nameref.pdf (Also the HTML version of the manual can be put there.)
f) Update the databases if necessary, eg. for teTeX:
     mktexlsr .../texmf


Depending on the driver and option settings, hyperref loads
other packages:
* atbegshi.sty:
* atveryend.sty:
* backref.sty (loaded by option `backref' or `pagebackref'):
* bigintcalc.sty (loaded by package `bitset'):
* bitset.sty:
* color.sty (loaded by option `colorlinks'):
* etexcmds.sty:
* gettitlestring.sty (loaded by package `nameref'):
* hycolor.sty:
* infwarerr.sty (loaded by packages `etexcmds', `stringenc',
  `atbegshi', `bitset'):
* intcalc.sty:
* ifpdf.sty (loaded by package `atbegshi'):
* ifluatex.sty (loaded by package `pdftexcmds'):
* ifvtex.sty:
* ifxetex.sty:
* intcalc.sty (loaded by package `bitset'):
* keyval.sty
* kvdefinekeys.sty
* kvoptions.sty:
* kvsetkeys.sty:
* letltxmacro.sty:
* ltxcmds.sty (loaded by package `pdftexcmds'):
* memhfixc.sty (loaded if class `memoir' is loaded):
* nameref.sty:
* pdfescape.sty (loaded by package `stringenc'):
* pdftexcmds.sty
* refcount.sty (loaded by package `nameref')
* rerunfilecheck.sty:
* stringenc.sty:
* tex4ht.sty (loaded by option `tex4ht'):
* uniquecounter.sty (loaded by package `rerunfilecheck'):
* url.sty
* vtexhtml.sty (loaded if VTeX is used in HTML mode)
* xcolor-patch.sty (loaded by package `hycolor')


Option `pdflinkmargin'
 Option `pdflinkmargin' is an experimental option for specifying
  a link margin, if the driver supports this. Default is 1 pt for
  supporting drivers.
  * The link area also depends on the surrounding box.
  * Settings have local effect.
  * When a page is shipped out, pdfTeX uses the current setting
    of the link margin for all links on the page.
  * Settings have global effect.
 Other drivers: Unsupported.
Field option `calculatesortkey'
 Fields with calculated values are calculated in document order
  by default. If calculated field values depend on other calculated
  fields that appear later in the document, then the correct calculation
  order can be specified with option `calculatesortkey'. Its value is
  used as key to lexicographically sort the calculated fields.
  The sort key do not need to be unique. Fields that share the same
  key are sorted in document order.
 Currently the field option `calculatesortkey' is only supported by
  the driver for pdfTeX.
Option `localanchorname'
 When an anchor is set (e.g. via \refstepcounter), then the
  anchor name is globally set to the current anchor name.
 For example:
  With the default global setting (localanchorname=false)
  a reference to `sec:foobar' jumps to the equation before.
  With option `localanchorname' the anchor of the equation
  is forgotten after the environment and the reference
  `sec:foobar' jumps to the section title.
 Option `localanchorname' is an experimental option, there
  might be situations, where the anchor name is not available
  as expected.
Option `customdriver'
 The value of option `customdriver' is the name of an external
  driver file without extension `.def'. The file must have
  \ProvidesFile with a version date and number that match the
  date and number of `hyperref', otherwise a warning is given.
 Because the interface, what needs to be defined in the driver,
  is not well defined and quite messy, the option is mainly intended
  to ease developing, testing, debugging the driver part.
Option `psdextra'
 LaTeX's NFSS is used to assist the conversion of arbitrary
  TeX strings to PDF strings (bookmarks, PDF information entries).
  Many math command names (\geq, \notin, ...) are not in control
  of NFSS, therefore they are defined with prefix `text'
  (\textgeq, \textnotin, ...). They can be mapped to short names
  during the processing to PDF strings. The disadvantage is that
  they are many hundreds macros that need to be redefined for
  each PDF string conversion. Therefore this can be enabled or
  disabled as option `psdextra'. On default the option is turned
  off (set to `false'). Turning the option on means
  that the short names are available. Then \geq can directly
  be used instead of \textgeq.
 When XeTeX generates a link annotation, it does not look
  at the boxes (as the other drivers), but only at the character
  glyphs. If there are no glyphs (images, rules, ...), then
  it does not generate a link annotation. Macro \XeTeXLinkBox
  puts its argument in a box and adds spaces at the lower left
  and upper right corners. An additional margin can be specified
  by setting it to the dimen register \XeTeXLinkMargin. The default
  is 2pt.
    % xelatex
    \section{Hello World}
\IfHyperBooleanExists and \IfHyperBoolean
  If a hyperref OPTION is a boolean, that means it takes values
  `true' or `false', then \IfHyperBooleanExists calls YES, otherwise NO.
  Macro \IfHyperBoolean calls YES, if OPTION exists as boolean and is
  enabled. Otherwise NO is executed.
 Both macros are expandable. Additionally option `stoppedearly' is
  available. It is enabled if \MaybeStopEarly or \MaybeStopNow
  end hyperref prematurely.
 If a Unicode character is not supported by puenc.def, it can
  be given by using \unichar. It's name and syntax is inherited
  from package `ucs'. However it is defined independently for
  use in hyperref's \pdfstringdef (that converts arbitrary
  TeX code to PDF strings or tries to do this).
 Macro \unichar takes a TeX number as argument,
  examples for U+263A (WHITE SMILING FACE):
    \unichar{"263A}% hexadecimal notation
    \unichar{9786}% decimal notation
  `"' must not be a babel shorthand character or otherwise
  active. Otherwise prefix it with \string:
    \unichar{\string"263A}% converts `"' to `"' with catcode 12 (other)
  Users of (n)german packages or babel options may use \dq instead:
    \unichar{\dq 263A}% \dq is double quote with catcode 12 (other)
 Some features of the PDF specification needs PDF strings.
  Examples are bookmarks or the entries in the information dictionary.
  The PDF specification allows two encodings `PDFDocEncoding'
  (8-bit encoding) and `Unicode' (UTF-16). The user can help
  using \texorpdfstring to replace complicate TeX constructs
  by a representation for the PDF string. However \texorpdfstring
  does not distinguish the two encodings. This gap closes
  \ifpdfstringunicode. It is only allowed in the second argument
  of \texorpdfstring and takes two arguments, the first allows
  the full range of Unicode. The second is limited to the
  characters available in PDFDocEncoding.
 As example we take a macro definition for the Vietnamese
  name of Han The Thanh. Correctly written it needs some
  accented characters, one character even with a double accent.
  Class `tugboat.cls' defines a macro for the typesetted name:
      Th\^e\llap{\raise 0.5ex\hbox{\'{}}}%
  It's not entirely correct, the second accent over the `e' is not
  an acute, but a hook. However standard LaTeX does not provide
  such an accent.
    Now we can extend the defintion to support hyperref.
  The first and the last word are already supported automatically.
  Characters with two or more accents are a difficult business in
  LaTeX, because the NFSS2 macros of the LaTeX kernel do not support
  more than one accent. Therefore also puenc.def misses support for
  them. But we can provide it using \unichar. The character
  in question is:
  Thus we can put this together:
      \texorpdfstring{Th\^e\llap{\raise 0.5ex\hbox{\'{}}}}%
  For PDFDocEncoding (PD1) the variant above has dropped the
  second accent. Alternatively we could provide a representation
  without accents instead of wrong accents:
        Th\^e\llap{\raise 0.5ex\hbox{\'{}}}}%
          H\`an Th\unichar{"1EC3} Th\`anh%
          Han The Thanh%
Customizing index style file with \nohyperpage
 Since version 2008/08/14 v6.78f.
 For hyperlink support in the index, hyperref inserts \hyperpage
  into the index macros. After processing with Makeindex, \hyperpage
  analyzes its argument to detect page ranges and page comma lists.
  However, only the standard settings are supported directly:
    delim_r "--"
    delim_n ", "
  (See manual page/documentation of Makeindex that explains
  the keys that can be used in style files for Makeindex.)
  Customized versions of
    delim_r, delim_n, suffix_2p, suffix_3p, suffix_mp
  needs markup that \hyperpage can detect and knows that
  this stuff does not belong to a page number. Makro
  \nohyperpage serves as this markup. Put the customized
  code for these keys inside \nohyperpage, e.g.:
    suffix_2p "\\nohyperpage{f.}"
    suffix_3p "\\nohyperpage{ff.}"
  (Depending on the typesetting tradition some space "\\," or "~"
  should be put before the first f inside \nohyperpage.)
Experimental option `ocgcolorlinks'
 The idea are colored links, when viewed, but printed without colors.
  This new experimental option `ocgcolorlinks' uses Optional Content
  Groups, a feature introduced in PDF 1.5.
  * The option must be given for package loading:
  * Main disadvantage: Links cannot be broken across lines.
    PDF reference 1.7: 4.10.2 "Making Graphical Content Optional":
      Graphics state operations, such as setting the color, ...,
      are still applied.
    Therefore the link text is put in a box and set twice, with and
    without color.
  * The feature can be switched of by \hypersetup{ocgcolorlinks=false}
    inside the document.
  * Supported drivers: pdftex, dvipdfm
  * The PDF version should be at least 1.5. It is automatically
    set for pdfTeX. Users of dvipdfmx set the version on the command
    line: dvipdfmx -V 5
Option `pdfa'
 The new option `pdfa' tries to avoid violations of PDF/A in code
  generated by hyperref. However, the result is usually not in PDF/A,
  because many features aren't controlled by hyperref (XMP metadata,
  fonts, colors, driver dependend low level stuff, ...).
 Currently, option `pdfa' sets and disables the following items:
  * Enabled annotation flags: Print, NoZoom, NoRotate [PDF/A 6.5.3].
  * Disabled annotation flags: Hidden, Invisible, NoView [PDF/A 6.5.3].
  * Disabled: Launch action (\href{run:...} [PDF/A 6.6.1].
  * Restricted: Named actions (\Acrobatmenu: NextPage, PrevPage,
    FirstPage, LastPage) [PDF/A 6.6.1].
  * Many things are disabled in PDF formulars:
    * JavaScript actions [PDF/A 6.6.1]
    * Trigger events (additional actions) [PDF/A 6.6.2]
    * Push button (because of JavaScript)
    * Interactive Forms: Flag NeedAppearances is the default `false'
      (Because of this, hyperref's implementation of Forms looks ugly).
      [PDF/A 6.9]
 The default value of the new option `pdfa' is `false'. It influences
  the loading of the package and cannot be changed after hyperref is
  loaded (\usepackage{hyperref}).
  * XMP support
  * ...
  But perhaps Adobe Acrobat is now happy and can now convert
  the PDF file to PDF/A.
Option `linktoc' added
 The new option `linktoc' allows more control which part
  of an entry in the table of contents is made into a link:
  * `linktoc=none'    (no links)
  * `linktoc=section' (default behaviour, same as `linktocpage=false')
  * `linktoc=page'    (same as `linktocpage=true')
  * `linktoc=all'     (both the section and page part are links)
Option `pdfnewwindow' changed
 Before 6.77b:
  * pdfnewwindow=true --> /NewWindow true
  * pdfnewwindow=false --> (absent)
  * unused pdfnewwindow --> (absent)
  Since 6.77b:
  * pdfnewwindow=true --> /NewWindow true
  * pdfnewwindow=false --> /NewWindow false
  * pdfnewwindow={} --> (absent)
  * unused pdfnewwindow --> (absent)
 Rationale: There is a difference between setting to `false'
  and an absent entry. In the former case the new document
  replaces the old one, in the latter case the PDF viewer
  application should respect the user preference.
Flag options for PDF forms
 PDF form field macros (\TextField, \CheckBox, ...) support
  boolean flag options. The option name is the lowercase
  version of the names in the PDF specification (1.7):
  Options (convert to lowercase) except flags in square brackets:
  * Table 8.16 Annotation flags (page 608):
    1 Invisible
    2 Hidden (PDF 1.2)
    3 Print (PDF 1.2)
    4 NoZoom (PDF 1.3)
    5 NoRotate (PDF 1.3)
    6 NoView (PDF 1.3)
    [7 ReadOnly (PDF 1.3)] ignored for widget annotations, see table 8.70
    8 Locked (PDF 1.4)
    9 ToggleNoView (PDF 1.5)
    10 LockedContents (PDF 1.7)
  * Table 8.70 Field flags common to all field types (page 676):
    1 ReadOnly
    2 Required
    3 NoExport
  * Table 8.75 Field flags specific to button fields (page 686):
    15 NoToggleToOff (Radio buttons only)
    16 Radio (set: radio buttons, clear: check box, pushbutton: clear)
    17 Pushbutton
    26 RadiosInUniso (PDF 1.5)
  * Table 8.77 Field flags specific to text fields (page 691):
    13 Multiline
    14 Password
    21 FileSelect (PDF 1.4)
    23 DoNotSpellCheck (PDF 1.4)
    24 DoNotScroll (PDF 1.4)
    25 Comb (PDF 1.5)
    26 RichText (PDF 1.5)
  * Table 8.79 Field flags specific to choice fields (page 693):
    18 Combo (set: combo box, clear: list box)
    19 Edit (only useful if Combo is set)
    20 (Sort) for authoring tools, not PDF viewers
    22 MultiSelect (PDF 1.4)
    23 DoNotSpellCheck (PDF 1.4) (only useful if Combo and Edit are set)
    27 CommitOnSelChange (PDF 1.5)
  * Table 8.86 Flags for submit-form actions (page 704):
    [1 Include/Exclude] unsupported, use `noexport' (table 8.70) instead
    2 IncludeNoValueFields
    [3 ExportFormat] handled by option `export'
    4 GetMethod
    5 SubmitCoordinates
    [6 XFDF (PDF 1.4)] handled by option `export'
    7 IncludeAppendSaves (PDF 1.4)
    8 IncludeAnnotations (PDF 1.4)
    [9 SubmitPDF (PDF 1.4)] handled by option `export'
    10 CanonicalFormat (PDF 1.4)
    11 ExclNonUserAnnots (PDF 1.4)
    12 ExclFKey (PDF 1.4)
    14 EmbedForm (PDF 1.5)
 New option `export' sets the export format of a submit action.
  Valid values are (upper- or lowercase):
  * FDF
  * HTML
  * XFDF
  * PDF (not supported by Acrobat Reader)
Option `pdfversion'
 This is an experimental option. It notifies `hyperref' about
  the intended PDF version. Currently this is used in code for
  PDF forms (implementation notes 116 and 122 of PDF spec 1.7).
 Values: 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7. Values below 1.2 are not
  supported, because most drivers expect higher PDF versions.
 The option must be used early, not after \usepackage{hyperref}.
 In theory this option should also set the PDF version,
  but this is not generally supported.
  * pdfTeX below 1.10a: unsupported.
    pdfTeX >= 1.10a and < 1.30: \pdfoptionpdfminorversion
    pdfTeX >= 1.30: \pdfminorversion
  * dvipdfm: configuration file, example:
    TeX Live 2007, texmf/dvipdfm/config/config, entry `V 2'.
  * dvipdfmx: configuration file, example:
    TeX Live 2007, texmf/dvipdfm/dvipdfmx.cfg, entry `V 4'.
  * Ghostscript: option -dCompatibilityLevel (this is set in
    `ps2pdf12', `ps2pdf13', `ps2pdf14').
 The current PDF version is used as default if this version
  can be detected (only pdfTeX >= 1.10a). Otherwise the lowest
  version 1.2 is assumed. Thus `hyperref' tries to avoid PDF code
  that breaks this version, but is free to use ignorable higher PDF
Field option `name'
 Many form objects uses the label argument
  for several purposes:
  * Layouted label.
  * As name in HTML structures.
  Code that is suitable for layouting with TeX can
  break in the structures of the output format.
  If option `name' is given, then its value is used
  as name in the different output structures. Thus
  the value should consist of letters only.
Option `pdfencoding'
 The PDF format allows two encodings for bookmarks and entries
  in the information dictionary: PDFDocEncoding and Unicode
  as UTF-16BE. Option "pdfencoding" selects between these encodings:
  * "pdfdoc" uses PDFDocEncoding. It uses just one byte per character,
     but the supported characters are limited (244 in PDF-1.7).
  * "unicode" sets Unicode. It is encoded as UTF-16BE. Two bytes
    are used for most characters, surrogates need four bytes.
  * "auto" PDFDocEncoding if the string does not contain characters
    outside the encoding and Unicode otherwise.
Color options/package hycolor
 See documentation of package `hycolor'.
Option pdfusetitle
 If option pdfusetitle is set then hyperref tries to
  derive the values for pdftitle and pdfauthor from
  \title and \author. An optional argument for \title and
  \author is supported (class amsart).
Starred form of \autoref
 \autoref* generates a reference without link as \ref* or \pageref*.
Link border style
 Links can be underlined instead of the default rectangle or
  options "colorlinks", "frenchlinks". This is done by option
      pdfborderstyle={/S/U/W 1}

  Some remarks:

  * AR7/Linux seems to have a bug, that don't use the default
    value "1" for the width, but zero, thus that the underline
    is not visible without "/W 1". The same applies for
    dashed boxes, eg.:
      pdfborderstyle={/S/D/D[3 2]/W 1}

  * The syntax is described in the PDF specification, look for
    "border style", eg.
    Table 8.13 "Entries in a border style dictionary"
    (specification for version 1.6)

  * The border style is removed by
    This is automatically done if option colorlinks is enabled.

  * Be aware that not all PDF viewers support this feature, not
    even Acrobat Reader itself:

    Some support:
    * AR7/Linux: "underline" and "dashed", but the border width
      must be given.
    * xpdf 3.00: "underline" and "dashed"

    * AR5/Linux
    * ghostscript 8.50
Option "bookmarksdepth"
 The depth of the bookmarks can be controlled by the new
  option "bookmarksdepth".  The option acts globally and
  distinguishes three cases:
  * "bookmarksdepth" without value
     Then hyperref uses the current value of counter "tocdepth".
     This is the compatible behaviour and the default.
  * "bookmarksdepth=<number>", the value is number (also negative):
    The depth for the bookmarks are set to this number.
  * "bookmarksdepth=<name>"
    The <name> is a document division name (part, chapter, ...).
    It must not start with a digit or minus to avoid mixing up
    with the number case. Internally hyperref uses the value
    of macro "\toclevel@<name>".
    \hypersetup{bookmarksdepth=4} % same as before
    \hypersetup{bookmarksdepth} % counter "tocdepth" is used
Option "pdfescapeform"
 There are many places where arbitrary strings end up as
  PS or PDF strings. The PS/PDF strings in parentheses form
  require the protection of some characters, e.g. unmatched
  left or right parentheses need escaping or the escape
  character itself (backslash).
    Since 2006/02/12 v6.75a the PS/PDF driver should do
  this automatically. However I assume a problem with
  compatibility, especially regarding the form part where
  larger amounts of JavaScript code can be present.
  It would be a pain to remove all the escaping, because
  an additional escaping layer can falsify the code.

  Therefore a new option pdfescapeform was introduced:
  * pdfescapeform=false
    Escaping for the formulars are disabled, this is
    the compatibility behaviour, therefore this is the default.
  * pdfescapeform=true
    Then the PS/PDF drivers do all the necessary escaping.
    This is the logical choice and the recommended setting.
    For example, the user writes JavaScript as JavaScript
    and do not care about escaping characters for PS/PDF
Default driver setting
 (hyperref >= 6.72s)
  If no driver is given, hyperref tries its best to guess the
  most suitable driver. Thus it loads "hpdftex", if pdfTeX is
  detected running in PDF mode. Or it loads the corresponding
  VTeX driver for VTeX's working modes.
    Unhappily many driver programs run after the TeX compiler,
  so hyperref does not have a chance (dvips, dvipdfm, ...).
  In this case driver "hypertex" is loaded that supports the
  HyperTeX features that are recognized by xdvi for example.
  This behaviour, however, can easily be changed in the configuration
  file "hyperref.cfg":
  for dvips, or
  for the default behaviour of hyperref.
 See also the new option `driverfallback'.
Backref entries
 Alternative interface for formatting of backref entries, example:



% Some language options are detected by package backref.
% This affects the following macros:
%   \backrefpagesname
%   \backrefsectionsname
%   \backrefsep
%   \backreftwosep
%   \backreflastsep

  % default interface
  % #1: backref list
  % We want to use the alternative interface,
  % therefore the definition is empty here.
  % alternative interface
  % #1: number of distinct back references
  % #2: backref list with distinct entries
  % #3: number of back references including duplicates
  % #4: backref list including duplicates
  #3 citation(s) on #1 page(s): #2,\par
  \ifnum#1=1 %
    \ifnum#3=1 %
      1 citation on page %
      #3 citations on page %
    #3 citations on #1 pages %
  \ifnum#3=1 %
    1 citation located at page %
    #3 citations located at pages %

% The list of distinct entries can be further refined:
  % #1: the original backref entry
  % #2: the count of citations of this entry,
  %     in case of duplicates greater than one
  \ifnum#2>1 %


    \cite{ref1, ref2, ref3, ref4}
    \cite{ref1, ref3}

  \section{Next section}

  \section{Last section}
    \cite{ref1, ref2}

    \bibitem{ref1} Dummy entry one.

    \bibitem{ref2} Dummy entry two.

    \bibitem{ref3} Dummy entry three.

    \bibitem{ref4} Dummy entry four.


Set an anchor at this location.  It is often used in conjunction
with \addcontentsline for sectionlike things (index, bibliography,
preface). \addcontentsline refers to the latest previous location
where an anchor is set.


Now the entry in the table of contents (and bookmarks) for the
index points to the start of the index page, not to a location
before this page.
See manual.


Currently only package loading orders are available:
Note: hyperref loads package "nameref" at \begin{document}.
Sometimes this is too late, thus this package must be loaded
  \usepackage[chapter]{algorithm}% eg.
 The environments equation and eqnarray are not supported too well.
  For example, there might be spacing problems (eqnarray isn't recommended
  anyway, see CTAN:info/l2tabu/, the situation for equation is unclear,
  because nobody is interested in investigating). Consider using the
  environments that package amsmath provide, e.g. gather for equation.
  The environment equation can even redefined to use gather:

 Package loading order:

arydshln, longtable
 Package longtable must be put before hyperref and arydshln,
  hyperref after arydshln generates an error, thus the
  resulting package order is then:

 The old version 2005/03/30 v1.4j will not work.
  You need at least version 1.5, maintained by P\'eter Szab\'o,
  see CTAN:language/hungarian/babel/.
 Babel's spanish.ldf redefines `\.' to support `\...'.
  In bookmarks (\pdfstringdef) only `\.' is supported.
  If `\...' is needed,
  can be used instead.




 Hyperref does not support package `bigfoot'. And package
  `bigfoot' does not support hyperref's footnotes and disables
  them (hyperfootnotes=false).
 Package `chappg' uses \@addtoreset that is redefined by `hyperref'.
  The package order is therefore:

 This is from Mike Shell:
> cite.sty cannot currently be used with hyperref.
> However, I can do a workaround via:
> \makeatletter
> \def\NAT@parse{\typeout{This is a fake Natbib command to fool Hyperref.}}
> \makeatother
> \usepackage[hypertex]{hyperref}
> so that hyperref will not redefine any of the biblabel stuff - so cite.sty
> will work as normal - although the citations will not be hyperlinked, of
> course (But this may not be an issue for many people).
 Package `count1to' adds several \@addtoreset commands that confuse
  `hyperref'. Therefore \theH<...> has to be fixed:

  \AtBeginDocument{% *after* \usepackage{count1to}
 pd1enc.def or puenc.def should be loaded before:
  or see entry for "vietnam".
 Not compatible, breaks.
 This packages redefines \textellipsis, thus it has to be loaded
  after package hyperref (pd1enc.def/puenc.def should be loaded before):

  * Several \caption commands are not supported inside one float object.
  * Anchor are set at top of the float object, if its style is controlled
    by float.sty.
 Update to version 2008/01/28 v2.1.4b:
  Since version 6.77a hyperref does not hack into \@begindvi,
  it uses package `atbegshi' instead, that hooks into \shipout.
  Thus the patch of `foils.cls' regarding hyperref is now obsolete
  and causes an undefined error message about \@hyperfixhead.
  This is fixed in FoilTeX 2.1.4b.
 This package is not supported, you have to disable hyperref's footnote
  support by using option "hyperfootnotes=false".
 Driver `dvipdfm' and program `dvipdfm' might generate a warning:
      Sorry.  Too late to change page size
  Then prefer the program `dvipdfmx' or use one of the following
  workarounds to move the \special of geometry to an earlier

    \documentclass[dvipdfm]{article}% or other classes


    \documentclass[dvipdfm]{article}% or other classes
 version >= V1.6b (because of \@makecaption, see ChangeLog)
 version >= 1995/09/28 v4.1 (because of \addcontentsline redefinition)
 Both `mathenv' and `hyperref' messes around with
  environment `eqnarray'. You can load `mathenv' after
  `hyperref' to avoid an error message. But \label
  will not work inside environment `eqnarray' properly,
  for example.
 This package is obsolete, use the uptodate original
  package minitoc instead.
 * Example for introducing links for the page numbers:
      \renewcommand*{\pagedeclaration}[1]{\unskip, \hyperpage{#1}}
 * For equations the following might work:
    But the mapping from the equation number to the anchor name
    is not available in general.
 Both packages want to redefine \@starttoc.
%%% example for prettyref %%%

%\newrefformat{FIG}{Figure~\ref{#1}}% without hyperref

  This is a reference to \prettyref{FIG:ONE}.
    \caption{This is my figure}
%%% example for prettyref %%%
 ntheorem-hyper.sty is an old patched version of ntheorem.sty.
  Newer versions of ntheorem know the option hyperref:
  But there are still unsolved problems (options thref, ...).
 Before 2002/05/24 v1.5h:
 1995/03/06 v2.0:
    % hypertexnames is set to false.
    please update
    or vice versa?
  \usepackage{titleref}% without usetoc
 Linked footnotes are not supported inside environment `tabularx',
  because they uses the optional argument of \footnotetext, see
  section `Limitations'. Before version 2011/09/28 6.82i
  hyperref had disabled footnotes entirely by `hyperfootnotes=false'.
 "nameref" supports titlesec, but hyperref does not
  (unsolved is the anchor setting, missing with unnumbered
  section, perhaps problems with page breaks with numbered ones).
 The first time a multibyte UTF8 sequence is called, it
  does some calculations and stores the result in a macro
  for speeding up the next calls of that UTF8 sequence.
  However this makes the first call non-expandable and
  will break if used in information entries or bookmarks.
  Package "ucs" offers \PrerenderUnicode or \PreloadUnicodePage
  to solve this:
    \usepackage{hyperref}% or with option unicode
    \PrerenderUnicode{^^c3^^b6}% or \PrerenderUnicodePage{1}
    \hypersetup{pdftitle={Umlaut example: ^^c3^^b6}}
  The notation with two carets avoids trouble with 8-bit bytes
  for the README file, you can use the characters directly.
 There are too many problems with varioref. Nobody has time to
  sort them out. Therefore this package is now unsupported.
 Perhaps you are lucky and some of the features of varioref works
  with the following loading order:
 Also some babel versions can be problematic. For exmample,
  2005/05/21 v3.8g contains a patch for varioref that breaks
  the hyperref support for varioref.
 Also unsupported:
  * \Ref, \Vref do not uppercase the first letter.
  * \vpageref[]{...}
    On the same page a previous space is not suppressed.
 Version 2005/08/22 v2.22 contains support for hyperref.

  For older versions see example from
  de.comp.text.tex (2005/08/11, slightly modified):


  % package order does not matter

  % make unique poemline anchors

  % add anchor for before \addcontentsline in \@vsptitle


  \poemtitle{Poem 1}
  An one-liner.


  \poemtitle{Poem 2}
  Another one-liner.

 % pd1enc.def should be loaded before package dblaccnt:
 Default for the encoding of bookmarks is `pdfencoding=auto'.
  That means the strings are always treated as unicode strings.
  Only if the string restricts to the printable ASCII set,
  it is written as ASCII string. The reason is that the
  \special does not support PDFDocEncoding.
 XeTeX uses the program xdvipdfmx for PDF output generation.
  This program behaves a little different from dvipdfm, because
  of the supported Unicode characters. Strings for bookmarks
  or information entries can be output directly. The
  big chars (char code > 255) are written in UTF-8 and
  xdvipdfmx tries to convert them to UTF-16BE. However
  hyperref already provides PDF strings encoded in UTF-16BE,
  thus the result is a warning
    "Failed to convert input string to UTF16..."
  The best way would be, if xdvipdfm could detect the
  byte order marker (\376\377) and skips the conversion
  if that marker is present.
    For the time being I added the following to hyperref,
  when option `pdfencoding=auto' is set (default for XeTeX):
  The string is converted back to big characters thus that the
  string is written as UTF-8. But I am very unhappy with this
  solution. Main disadvantage:
  Two versions of \pdfstringdef are needed:
  a) The string is converted back to big characters for
     the "tainted keys" of xdvipdfmx (spc_pdfm.c: default_taintkeys).
     The subset hyperref uses is /Title, /Author, /Subject,
     /Keywords, /Creator, /Producer, /T. Any changes of this
     set in xdvipdfmx cannot be detected by hyperref.
  b) Without conversion for the other strings , providing UTF16be
     directly. Examples: Prefix of page labels, some elements
     of formulars.
  Thus *each* application that uses \pdfstringdef now must
  check, if it defines a string for some of the tained keys.
  If yes, then the call of \pdfstringdef should be preceded
  by "\csname HyPsd@XeTeXBigCharstrue\endcsname".
  Example: package bookmark.


Wrapped/broken link support
 Only few drivers support automatically wrapped/broken links,
  e.g. pdftex, dvipdfm, hypertex. Other drivers lack this
  feature, e.g. dvips, dvipsone.

  * For long section or caption titles in the table of contents
    or list of figures/tables option "linktocpage" can be used.
    Then the page number will be a link, and the overlong section
    title is not forced into an one line link with overvull \hbox
  * "\url"s are caught by package "breakurl".
  * The option "breaklinks" is intended for internal use. But it
    can be used to force link wrapping, e.g. when printing a
    document. However, when such a document is converted to PDF
    and viewed with a PDF viewer, the active link area will be
      Another limitation: some penalties are "optimized" by TeX,
    thus there are missing break points, especially within
    \url. (See thread "hyperref.sty, breaklinks and url.sty 3.2"
    in comp.text.tex 2005-09).
Links across pages
 In general they have problems:
  * Some driver doesn't support them at all (see above).
  * The driver allows it, but the link result might include
    the footer and/or header, or an error message can
    occur sometimes.
 LaTeX allows the separation of the footnote mark and the
  footnote text (\footnotemark, \footnotetext). This interface
  might be enough for visual typesetting. But the relation between
  \footnotemark to \footnotetext is not as strong as \ref to \label.
  Therefore it is not clear in general which \footnotemark references
  which \footnotetext. But that is necessary to implement hyperlinking.
  Thus the implementation of hyperref does not support the optional
  argument of \footnotemark and \footnotetext.


Spaces in option values
 Unhappily LaTeX strips spaces from options if they are given
  in \documentclass or \usepackage (or \RequirePackage), e.g.:
    \usepackage[pdfborder=0 0 1]{hyperref}
  Package hyperref now gets
  and the result is an invalid PDF file.
  As workaround braces can be used:
    \usepackage[pdfborder={0 0 1}]{hyperref}
  Some options can also be given in \hypersetup:
    \hypersetup{pdfborder=0 0 1}
  In \hypersetup the options are directly processed as key value
  options (see package keyval) without space stripping in the value part.
 Alternatively, LaTeX's option handling system can be adapted
  to key value options by one of the packages "kvoptions-patch"
  (from project "kvoptions") or "xkvltxp" (from project "xsetkeys").
Index with makeindex
 * Package hyperref adds \hyperpage commands by the encap
    mechanism (see documentation of Makeindex),
    if option hyperindex is set (default).
    \hyperpage uses the page anchors that are set by
    hyperref at each page (default). However in the
    default case page numbers are used in anchor names
    in arabic form. If the page numbers in other formats
    are used (book class with \frontmatter, \romannumbering, ...),
    then the page anchors are not unique. Therefore option
    "plainpages=false" is recommended.
  * The encap mechanism of Makeindex allows to use one command only
    (see documentation of Makeindex).
    If the user sets such a command, hyperref suppresses its
    \hyperpage command. With logical markup this situation
    can easily be solved:
      \index{Some example|main}
  * Scientic Word/Scientific WorkPlace users can use
    package robustindex with hyperindex=false.
  * Other encap characters can be set by option "encap".
    Example for use of "?":
  * An other possibility is the insertion of \hyperpage by
    a style file for makeindex. For this case, hyperref's
    insertion will be disabled by "hyperindex=false".
    \hyperpage will be defined regardless of setting of hyperindex.

%%% cut %%% hyperindex.ist %%% cut %%%
delim_0 ", \\hyperpage{"
delim_1 ", \\hyperpage{"
delim_2 ", \\hyperpage{"
delim_n "}, \\hyperpage{"
delim_t "}"
encap_prefix "}\\"
encap_infix "{\\hyperpage{"
encap_suffix "}"
%%% cut %%% hyperindex.ist %%% cut %%%
Warning "bookmark level for unknown <foobar> defaults to 0"
 Getting rid of it:

Link anchors in figures
 The caption command increments the counter and here is the
  place where hyperref set the corresponding anchor. Unhappily
  the caption is set below the figure, so the figure is not
  visible if a link jumps to a figure.
    In this cases, try package "hypcap.sty" that implements
  a method to circumvent the problem.
Additional unicode characters in bookmarks and pdf information entries:

% Support for additional unicode characters:
% Example: \.{a} and \d{a}
% 1. Get a list with unicode data, eg:
%    http://www.unicode.org/Public/UNIDATA/UnicodeData.txt
% 2. Identify the characters (\.{a}, \d{a}):
% 3. Calculate the octal code:
%    The first characters of the line in the file are
%    hex values, convert each byte and prepend them
%    with a backslash. (This will go into the PDF file.)
%    0227 -> \002\047
%    1EA1 -> \036\241
% 4. Transform into a form understood by hyperref:
%    Hyperref must know where the first byte starts,
%    this is marked by "9" (8 and 9 cannot occur in
%    octal numbers):
%    \002\047 -> \9002\047
%    \036\241 -> \9036\241
%    Optional: "8" is used for abbreviations:
%    \900 = \80, \901 = \81, \902 = \82, ...
%    \9002\047 -> \82\047
% 5. Declare the character with LaTeX:

\section{\={a}, \d{a}, \'{a}, \.{a}}
 The footnote support is rather limited. It is beyond the scope
  to use \footnotemark and \footnotetext out of order or reusing
  \footnotemark. Here you can either disable hyperref's footnote
  support by "hyperfootnotes=false" or fiddle with internal macros,
  nasty examples:

\footnote{The first footnote}






  % remember link name
  \addtocounter{Hfootnote}{-1}% generate the same anchor


Subordinate counters
 Some counters do not have unique values and require the value
  of other counters to be unique. For example, sections or figures
  might be numbered within chapters or \newtheorem is used with
  an optional counter argument. Internally LaTeX uses \@addtoreset
  to reset a counter in dependency to another counter. Package
  hyperref hooks into \@addtoreset to catch this situation.
  Also \numberwithin of package amsmath is catched by hyperref.
 However, if the definition of subordinate counters take place
  before hyperref is loaded, the old meaning of \@addtoreset is
  called without hyperref's additions. Then the companion counter
  macro \theH<counter> can be redefined accordingly. Or move the
  definition of subordinate counters after hyperref is loaded.
 Example for \newtheorem, problematic case:
  Solution a)
  Solution b)


* Sebastian Rahtz (died 2016)
* Heiko Oberdiek


A bug report should contain:
* Comprehensive problem description. This includes error or
  warning messages.
  * \errorcontextlines=\maxdimen can be added in the TeX code
    to get more informations in TeX error messages.
* Minimal test file that shows the problem, but does not
  contain any unnecessary packages and code.
* Used drivers/programs.
* Version information about used packages and programs.
  * If you are using LaTeX, then add "\listfiles". Then
    a list of version informations is printed at the end
    of the LaTeX run.
* Please no other files than the minimal test file.
  The other files .log, .dvi, .ps, .pdf are seldom necessary,
  so send them only on request.
Bug address
A bug tracker is available at github:
Alternatively bug reports can be send to the support group public email list:
 <ho-tex [at] tug [dot] org>
Vietnamese part
Responsible for the Vietnamese translations of the
\autoref names and puvnenc.def are:
  Han The Thanh <hanthethanh [at] gmail [dot] com>
  Reinhard Kotucha <reinhard [dot] kotucha at web [dot] de>
Arabic part
Responsible for the additions to PU encoding for Arabi is
  Youssef Jabri <yjabri [at] ensa [dot] univ-oujda [dot] ac [dot] ma>


* (half-done) hyper images (link from thumbnail in text)
* Relative links are not sorted out or documented well.
  For PDF generation:
  * With baseurl: all links are considered relative to this URL.
  * Without baseurl: a relative link without "file:" can be
    achieved by:
* ...


* modules
* bookmark organisation
* documentation
* PDF threads
* more for PDF forms
  * per object setting
  * vary gap between text and box
* PostScript driver: the current implementation doesn't relly support
  nested links. The start positions should be remembered in a stack,
  but there are complications with page breaks.
* ...


TeX Live
* TL 2016:      2016/05/05 v6.83n (at time of first release)
* TL 2011:      2011/04/17 v6.82g (at time of first release)
* TL 2010:      2010/06/18 v6.81g (at time of first release)
* TL 2009:      2009/10/09 v6.79a (at time of first release)
* TL 2008:      2008/08/14 v6.78f (at time of first release)
* TL 2007:      2007/02/07 v6.75r
* TL 2005:      2003/11/30 v6.74m
* TL 2004:      2003/11/30 v6.74m
* TL 2003:      2003/09/15 v6.74i
* TL 7  (2002): 2002/05/27 v6.72r
* TL 6b (2001): 2001/05/26 v6.71g
* TL 5d (2000): 2000/07/02 v6.70m
* TL 5c (2000): 2000/05/08 v6.70f
* TL 4  (1999): 1999/04/13 v6.56
* TL 3  (1998): 1998/03/25 v6.19

Down­load the con­tents of this pack­age in one zip archive (4.3M).

hy­per­ref – Ex­ten­sive sup­port for hy­per­text in

The hy­per­ref pack­age is used to han­dle cross-ref­er­enc­ing com­mands in to pro­duce hy­per­text links in the doc­u­ment. The pack­age pro­vides back­ends for the \spe­cial set de­fined for Hyper DVI pro­ces­sors; for em­bed­ded pdf­mark com­mands for pro­cess­ing by Acro­bat Dis­tiller (dvips and Y&Y’s dvip­sone); for Y&Y’s dvi­windo; for PDF con­trol within pdf and dvipdfm; for 4ht; and for V’s pdf and HTML back­ends.

The pack­age is dis­tributed with the back­ref and nameref pack­ages, which make use of the fa­cil­i­ties of hy­per­ref.

The pack­age de­pends on the au­thor’s kvop­tions, ltx­cmds and re­f­count pack­ages.

Home pagehttps://github.com/ho-tex/hy­per­ref
Bug trackerhttps://github.com/ho-tex/hy­per­ref/is­sues
Li­censesThe Project Public Li­cense 1.3
Copy­right2001–2012 Heiko Oberdiek
2016–2018 Oberdiek Pack­age Sup­port Group
Main­tainerHeiko Oberdiek
Se­bas­tian Rahtz pkg.au­thor.died
TDS archivehyperref.tds.zip
Con­tained inTeX Live as hy­per­ref
MiKTeX as hy­per­ref
TopicsAdobe Dis­tiller
PDF fea­tures
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