CTAN Comprehensive TeX Archive Network

Directory macros/latex/contrib/babel-contrib/greek

Babel support for the Greek language and script

:Copyright: © 1997 Apostolos Syropoulos, Claudio Beccari, Johannes Brahms,
            © 2013 -- 2020 Günter Milde.
:Licence:   This work may be distributed and/or modified under the
            conditions of the `LaTeX Project Public License`_, either
            version 1.3 of this license or any later version.

:Abstract: Babel-greek is a contributed package providing support for the
           Greek language and script via the Babel_ system.

           The file ``greek.ldf`` provides options for the monotonic
           (single-diacritic), polytonic (multiple-diacritic) and ancient
           orthography of the Greek language.

           Since 2013-07-19, babel-greek supports also Unicode-aware TeX
           engines (XeTeX/LuaTeX).


.. class:: borderless

===== ============ ============================================================
1.4   2013-05-17   New maintainer.
..                 The encoding definition file ``lgrenc.def`` moved to the
                   greek-fontenc_ package.

1.5   2013-06-21   bugfixes and cleanup,
..                 LICR macros in string definitions,
..                 LGR font encoding not used with XeTeX/LuaTeX,
..                 input "xgreek-fixes.def" from polyglossia_ with Xe/LuaTeX.
1.5a  2013-07-02   Fix LaTeX bugs babel/3707, `babel/4303`_ and `babel/4305`_
1.6   2013-07-19   Experimental support for XeTeX/LuaTeX.
1.7   2013-09-09   CB-Fonts font definition files moved to CB-Fonts package.
..                 Do not auto-load euenc.def with XeTeX/LuaTeX.
1.7a  2013-09-13   Fix bug `babel/4360`_: spurious ``\fi``.
1.7b  2013-10-01   bugfix: correct upcasing of babel strings with Xe/LuaTeX.
1.8   2013-12-02   Rename ``greek.dtx`` to ``babel-greek`` so that texdoc_
                   shows the right documentation.
..                 Compatibility with Xe/LuaTeX in Unicode and 8-bit mode.
1.8a  2013-12-03   Set ``\encodingdefault`` in ``\greekscript`` to fix
                   Greek in footnotes etc. with document language Greek.
1.9   2014-07-20   Added attribute for ancient Greek, load correct hyphenation
                   patterns: Patch by Claudio Beccari. Bugfix for Makeuppercase
1.9a  2014-09-12   Remove duplicate code, documentation review.
1.9b  2014-09-18   Remove spurious whitespace from "extrasgreek" definition.
..                 Use named macros instead of non-standard short macros
                   for psili and dasia in the string definitions.
1.9c  2014-10-21   Fix dummy hyphenation language names (patch Ulrike Fischer).
1.9d  2015-09-04   Remove `grsymb` (macros for Greek symbols).
                   This package is outdated and obsoleted by greek-fontenc_
                   (reported by Claudio Beccari).
..                 Unicode uc/lc corrections now in greek-fontenc.
1.9e  2015-11-27   Fix bug in lccode-setting loop (patch by Enrico Gregorio).
1.9f  2016-02-04   Support for new standard Unicode text font encoding "TU".
1.9g  2016-09-07   Babel 3.9i deprecated ``\textlatin``
                   and fixed ``\latinencoding``.
1.9h  2019-07-11   Move breathing composite commands to textalpha_.
1.9i  2020-02-28   Update test for Unicode fonts.
                   Fix accent in ``\seename`` and ``\alsoname``.
1.9j  2020-03-17   Fix ampersand in math mode.
1.10  2020-11-10   Use ``TU`` as ``\greekfontencoding`` for Xe/LuaTeX
                   (set by LaTeX as `default font encoding for Unicode
                   engines`_ since 2017/01/01).
..                 Use zig-zagy ``\textkoppa`` for ``\greeknumeral{90}``.
..                 PDF-string secure implementation of ``\greeknumeral``
                   from hyperref_.
..                 Load ``puenc-greek.def`` (from greek-fontenc_)
                   if used with hyperref (polytonic Greek in PDF-strings).
===== ============ ============================================================

.. _babel/4303: http://www.latex-project.org/cgi-bin/ltxbugs2html?pr=babel/4303
.. _babel/4305: http://www.latex-project.org/cgi-bin/ltxbugs2html?pr=babel/4305
.. _babel/4360: http://www.latex-project.org/cgi-bin/ltxbugs2html?pr=babel/4360


`<babel-greek.dtx>`_; `<babel-greek.pdf>`_
  Source of the language definition file ``greek.ldf`` for use with Babel_.
`<athnum.dtx>`_; `<athnum.pdf>`_
  Athenian Numerals.
`<grmath.dtx>`_; `<grmath.pdf>`_
  Greek log-like Operators.
  DocStrip_ batch file.
`<test-greek.tex>`_ `<test-greek-lgr.pdf>`_ `<test-greek-tu.pdf>`_
  Test Babel-Greek features.
`<test-8bit-greek.tex>`_ `<test-8bit-greek.pdf>`_
  Additional tests and examples for 8-bit TeX.
`<test-tu-lgr.tex>`_ `<test-tu-lgr.pdf>`_
  Tests and Examples for XeTeX/LuaTeX with LGR 8-bit fonts.
`<usage.tex>`_ `<usage.pdf>`_
  Description of the `LGR Latin transliteration`_.


The "babel-greek" package requires the babel_ base package and font
definition files from the greek-fontenc_ package. The greek-inputenc_
package is recommended when using 8-bit TeX engines.

Typesetting Greek texts requires `Greek text fonts`_.

Plain TeX is currently not supported. Patches are welcome.


If possible, get this package from your distribution using its installation

Otherwise, make sure LaTeX can find the required files:

* Download and unpack `babel-greek.zip`.

* Run ``tex`` or ``latex`` on the batch file ``babel-greek.ins``.

  This will generate the files ``greek.ldf``, ``athnum.sty``, and
  ``grmath.sty`` in the current directory. [#]_

* Move all files ending in ``.ldf`` or ``.sty`` into a directory searched by

* To produce the documentation, run the file ``usage.tex`` and all files
  ending in ``.dtx`` through LaTeX.

.. [#] If these files already exist somewhere in the TeX-path, you will be
   warned that they might be overwritten. You can ignore this
   warning and answer `y` unless the *current directory* contains versions
   of these files you want to keep.

   This is done by docstrip_. Try ``texdoc docstrip`` for details.


Use the "greek" document option or pass the "greek" option to babel::


For polytonic Greek, set the language attribute  "polutoniko"::


or ::


Similarly, the attribute "ancient" selects the ancient Greek language

For details see `<babel-greek.pdf>`_ and the babel_ documentation.

Input of Greek characters is possible as literal characters (with the
greek-inputenc_ package or with XeTeX or LuaTeX) or the `LGR Latin
transliteration`_. See `<usage.pdf>`_ and the example files provided with

Greek text fonts

A list of Greek text fonts for use with LaTeX is available at the CTAN

With the XeTeX or LuaTeX engines, the user should ensure that the chosen
font contains the required glyphs: the default Latin Modern fonts miss
them. Warnings about missing charcters are only written to the log
file, not the console output! Select a suitable font with fontspec_.

Examples for suitable fonts are the CM-unicode_ or the `Linux
Libertine`_ OpenType fonts as well as any system-wide installed OTF fonts
that support Greek (e.g. `Deja Vu`_).

The LGR `font encoding`_ is the de-facto standard for typesetting Greek with
8-bit LaTeX. Fonts in this encoding include the `CB fonts`_ (matching CM),
grtimes_ (Greek Times), Kerkis_ (matching URW Bookman), and the `GFS font
collection`_. Setup of these fonts as Greek variant to matching Latin fonts
is facilitated by the substitutefont_ package.

LGR Latin Transliteration

The LGR font encoding allows input of Greek characters via an ASCII
transliteration. This enables simple input with a Latin keyboard. Characters
with diacritics may be selected with accent macros (cf. greek-fontenc_) or
via the ligature definitions in the font (see `<usage.pdf>`_).

The following ASCII characters are converted to Greek symbols:

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
A B G D E Z H J I K L M N X O P R S   T U F Q Y W
Α Β Γ Δ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν Ξ Ο Π Ρ Σ   Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
a b g d e z h j i k l m n x o p r s c t u f q y w
α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ ς τ υ φ χ ψ ω
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =

Accent symbols and punctuation:

================= ====== == ====================== ======== ====
tonos             ``'a``  ά  semicolon              ``;``    ·
varia             \`a     ὰ  question mark          ``?``    ;
perispomeni       ``~a``  ᾶ  left apostrophe        \` \`    ‘
dasia             ``<a``  ἁ  right apostrophe       ``''``   ’
psili             ``>a``  ἀ  left quotation mark    ``((``   «
ypogegrammeni     ``a|``  ᾳ  right quotation mark   ``))``   »
dialytika         ``"i``  ϊ  zero width non-joiner  v
================= ====== == ====================== ======== ====

A major drawback of the LGR transliteration is that you cannot access Latin
letters and some symbols if LGR is the active font encoding (e.g. in
documents or parts of documents given the `Babel` language ``greek``). This
means that for every Latin-written word or acronym an explicit
language-switch is required. This problem can only be solved via a
font-encoding comprising both Latin and Greek like the hypothetical T7 or
Unicode (with XeTeX or LuaTeX).

.. References

.. _LaTeX Project Public License: http://www.latex-project.org/lppl.txt
.. _babel: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/babel
.. _docstrip: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/docstrip
.. _font encoding: http://mirror.ctan.org/macros/latex/base/encguide.pdf
.. _fontspec: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/fontspec
.. _fontenc: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/fontenc
.. _CB Fonts: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/cbgreek-complete
.. _CM-unicode: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/cm-unicode
.. _Deja Vu: http://dejavu-fonts.org
.. _e-TeX: http://www.tex.ac.uk/cgi-bin/texfaq2html?label=etex
.. _grtimes: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/grtimes
.. _hyperref: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/hyperref
.. _textalpha:
.. _greek-fontenc: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/greek-fontenc
.. _greek-inputenc: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/greek-inputenc
.. _GFS font collection: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/gfs
.. _Kerkis: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/kerkis
.. _Linux Libertine: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/libertine
.. _polyglossia: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/polyglossia
.. _substitutefont: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/substitutefont
.. _texdoc: http://www.ctan.org/pkg/texdoc
.. _default font encoding for Unicode engines:

Download the contents of this package in one zip archive (1.2M).

babel-greek – Babel support for documents written in Greek

The file provides modes for monotonic (single-diacritic) and polytonic (multiple-diacritic) modes of writing. Provision is made for Greek function names in mathematics, and for classical-era symbols.

Version1.10 2020-11-10
LicensesThe Project Public License 1.3
Copyright1989–2008 Apostolos Syropoulos, Johannes Braams
2013–2020 Günter Milde
MaintainerGünter Milde
Javier Bezos López (inactive)
Johannes L. Braams (inactive)
Apostolos Syropoulos (inactive)
Contained inTeX Live as babel-greek
MiKTeX as babel-greek
Multi-lingual addon
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