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GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense

Ver­sion 3, 29 June 2007

Copy­right © 2007 Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion, Inc. <>

Every­one is per­mit­ted to copy and dis­tribute ver­ba­tim copies of this li­cense doc­u­ment, but chang­ing it is not al­lowed.


The GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense is a free, copy­left li­cense for soft­ware and other kinds of works.

The li­censes for most soft­ware and other prac­ti­cal works are de­signed to take away your free­dom to share and change the works. By con­trast, the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense is in­tended to guar­an­tee your free­dom to share and change all ver­sions of a pro­gram--to make sure it re­mains free soft­ware for all its users. We, the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion, use the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense for most of our soft­ware; it ap­plies also to any other work re­leased this way by its au­thors. You can ap­ply it to your pro­grams, too.

When we speak of free soft­ware, we are re­fer­ring to free­dom, not price. Our Gen­eral Public Li­censes are de­signed to make sure that you have the free­dom to dis­tribute copies of free soft­ware (and charge for them if you wish), that you re­ceive source code or can get it if you want it, that you can change the soft­ware or use pieces of it in new free pro­grams, and that you know you can do these things.

To pro­tect your rights, we need to pre­vent oth­ers from deny­ing you these rights or ask­ing you to sur­ren­der the rights. There­fore, you have cer­tain re­spon­si­bil­i­ties if you dis­tribute copies of the soft­ware, or if you mod­ify it: re­spon­si­bil­i­ties to re­spect the free­dom of oth­ers.

For ex­am­ple, if you dis­tribute copies of such a pro­gram, whether gratis or for a fee, you must pass on to the re­cip­i­ents the same free­doms that you re­ceived. You must make sure that they, too, re­ceive or can get the source code. And you must show them these terms so they know their rights.

Devel­op­ers that use the GNU GPL pro­tect your rights with two steps: (1) as­sert copy­right on the soft­ware, and (2) of­fer you this Li­cense giv­ing you le­gal per­mis­sion to copy, dis­tribute and/or mod­ify it.

For the de­vel­op­ers' and au­thors' pro­tec­tion, the GPL clearly ex­plains that there is no war­ranty for this free soft­ware. For both users' and au­thors' sake, the GPL re­quires that mod­i­fied ver­sions be marked as changed, so that their prob­lems will not be at­tributed er­ro­neously to au­thors of pre­vi­ous ver­sions.

Some de­vices are de­signed to deny users ac­cess to in­stall or run mod­i­fied ver­sions of the soft­ware in­side them, al­though the man­u­fac­turer can do so. This is fun­da­men­tally in­com­pat­i­ble with the aim of pro­tect­ing users' free­dom to change the soft­ware. The sys­tem­atic pat­tern of such abuse oc­curs in the area of prod­ucts for in­di­vid­u­als to use, which is pre­cisely where it is most un­ac­cept­able. There­fore, we have de­signed this ver­sion of the GPL to pro­hibit the prac­tice for those prod­ucts. If such prob­lems arise sub­stan­tially in other do­mains, we stand ready to ex­tend this pro­vi­sion to those do­mains in fu­ture ver­sions of the GPL, as needed to pro­tect the free­dom of users.

Fi­nally, ev­ery pro­gram is threat­ened con­stantly by soft­ware patents. States should not al­low patents to re­strict de­vel­op­ment and use of soft­ware on gen­eral-pur­pose com­put­ers, but in those that do, we wish to avoid the spe­cial dan­ger that patents ap­plied to a free pro­gram could make it ef­fec­tively pro­pri­etary. To pre­vent this, the GPL as­sures that patents can­not be used to ren­der the pro­gram non-free.

The pre­cise terms and con­di­tions for copy­ing, dis­tri­bu­tion and mod­i­fi­ca­tion fol­low.


0. Def­i­ni­tions.

“This Li­cense” refers to ver­sion 3 of the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense.

“Copy­right” also means copy­right-like laws that ap­ply to other kinds of works, such as semi­con­duc­tor masks.

“The Pro­gram” refers to any copy­rightable work li­censed un­der this Li­cense. Each li­censee is ad­dressed as “you”. “Li­censees” and “re­cip­i­ents” may be in­di­vid­u­als or or­ga­ni­za­tions.

To “mod­ify” a work means to copy from or adapt all or part of the work in a fash­ion re­quir­ing copy­right per­mis­sion, other than the mak­ing of an ex­act copy. The re­sult­ing work is called a “mod­i­fied ver­sion” of the ear­lier work or a work “based on” the ear­lier work.

A “cov­ered work” means ei­ther the un­mod­i­fied Pro­gram or a work based on the Pro­gram.

To “prop­a­gate” a work means to do any­thing with it that, with­out per­mis­sion, would make you di­rectly or sec­on­dar­ily li­able for in­fringe­ment un­der ap­pli­ca­ble copy­right law, ex­cept ex­e­cut­ing it on a com­puter or mod­i­fy­ing a pri­vate copy. Prop­a­ga­tion in­cludes copy­ing, dis­tri­bu­tion (with or with­out mod­i­fi­ca­tion), mak­ing avail­able to the pub­lic, and in some coun­tries other ac­tiv­i­ties as well.

To “con­vey” a work means any kind of prop­a­ga­tion that en­ables other par­ties to make or re­ceive copies. Mere in­ter­ac­tion with a user through a com­puter net­work, with no trans­fer of a copy, is not con­vey­ing.

An in­ter­ac­tive user in­ter­face dis­plays “Ap­pro­pri­ate Le­gal No­tices” to the ex­tent that it in­cludes a con­ve­nient and promi­nently vis­i­ble fea­ture that (1) dis­plays an ap­pro­pri­ate copy­right no­tice, and (2) tells the user that there is no war­ranty for the work (ex­cept to the ex­tent that war­ranties are pro­vided), that li­censees may con­vey the work un­der this Li­cense, and how to view a copy of this Li­cense. If the in­ter­face presents a list of user com­mands or op­tions, such as a menu, a promi­nent item in the list meets this cri­te­rion.

1. Source Code.

The “source code” for a work means the pre­ferred form of the work for mak­ing mod­i­fi­ca­tions to it. “Ob­ject code” means any non-source form of a work.

A “Stan­dard In­ter­face” means an in­ter­face that ei­ther is an of­fi­cial stan­dard de­fined by a rec­og­nized stan­dards body, or, in the case of in­ter­faces spec­i­fied for a par­tic­u­lar pro­gram­ming lan­guage, one that is widely used among de­vel­op­ers work­ing in that lan­guage.

The “Sys­tem Li­braries” of an ex­e­cutable work in­clude any­thing, other than the work as a whole, that (a) is in­cluded in the nor­mal form of pack­ag­ing a Ma­jor Com­po­nent, but which is not part of that Ma­jor Com­po­nent, and (b) serves only to en­able use of the work with that Ma­jor Com­po­nent, or to im­ple­ment a Stan­dard In­ter­face for which an im­ple­men­ta­tion is avail­able to the pub­lic in source code form. A “Ma­jor Com­po­nent”, in this con­text, means a ma­jor es­sen­tial com­po­nent (ker­nel, win­dow sys­tem, and so on) of the spe­cific op­er­at­ing sys­tem (if any) on which the ex­e­cutable work runs, or a com­piler used to pro­duce the work, or an ob­ject code in­ter­preter used to run it.

The “Cor­re­spond­ing Source” for a work in ob­ject code form means all the source code needed to gen­er­ate, in­stall, and (for an ex­e­cutable work) run the ob­ject code and to mod­ify the work, in­clud­ing scripts to con­trol those ac­tiv­i­ties. How­ever, it does not in­clude the work's Sys­tem Li­braries, or gen­eral-pur­pose tools or gen­er­ally avail­able free pro­grams which are used un­mod­i­fied in per­form­ing those ac­tiv­i­ties but which are not part of the work. For ex­am­ple, Cor­re­spond­ing Source in­cludes in­ter­face def­i­ni­tion files as­so­ci­ated with source files for the work, and the source code for shared li­braries and dy­nam­i­cally linked sub­pro­grams that the work is specif­i­cally de­signed to re­quire, such as by in­ti­mate data com­mu­ni­ca­tion or con­trol flow be­tween those sub­pro­grams and other parts of the work.

The Cor­re­spond­ing Source need not in­clude any­thing that users can re­gen­er­ate au­to­mat­i­cally from other parts of the Cor­re­spond­ing Source.

The Cor­re­spond­ing Source for a work in source code form is that same work.

2. Ba­sic Per­mis­sions.

All rights granted un­der this Li­cense are granted for the term of copy­right on the Pro­gram, and are ir­re­vo­ca­ble pro­vided the stated con­di­tions are met. This Li­cense ex­plic­itly af­firms your un­lim­ited per­mis­sion to run the un­mod­i­fied Pro­gram. The out­put from run­ning a cov­ered work is cov­ered by this Li­cense only if the out­put, given its con­tent, con­sti­tutes a cov­ered work. This Li­cense ac­knowl­edges your rights of fair use or other equiv­a­lent, as pro­vided by copy­right law.

You may make, run and prop­a­gate cov­ered works that you do not con­vey, with­out con­di­tions so long as your li­cense oth­er­wise re­mains in force. You may con­vey cov­ered works to oth­ers for the sole pur­pose of hav­ing them make mod­i­fi­ca­tions ex­clu­sively for you, or pro­vide you with fa­cil­i­ties for run­ning those works, pro­vided that you com­ply with the terms of this Li­cense in con­vey­ing all ma­te­rial for which you do not con­trol copy­right. Those thus mak­ing or run­ning the cov­ered works for you must do so ex­clu­sively on your be­half, un­der your di­rec­tion and con­trol, on terms that pro­hibit them from mak­ing any copies of your copy­righted ma­te­rial out­side their re­la­tion­ship with you.

Con­vey­ing un­der any other cir­cum­stances is per­mit­ted solely un­der the con­di­tions stated be­low. Subli­cens­ing is not al­lowed; sec­tion 10 makes it un­nec­es­sary.

3. Pro­tect­ing Users' Le­gal Rights From Anti-Cir­cum­ven­tion Law.

No cov­ered work shall be deemed part of an ef­fec­tive tech­no­log­i­cal mea­sure un­der any ap­pli­ca­ble law ful­fill­ing obli­ga­tions un­der ar­ti­cle 11 of the WIPO copy­right treaty adopted on 20 De­cem­ber 1996, or sim­i­lar laws pro­hibit­ing or re­strict­ing cir­cum­ven­tion of such mea­sures.

When you con­vey a cov­ered work, you waive any le­gal power to for­bid cir­cum­ven­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal mea­sures to the ex­tent such cir­cum­ven­tion is ef­fected by ex­er­cis­ing rights un­der this Li­cense with re­spect to the cov­ered work, and you dis­claim any in­ten­tion to limit op­er­a­tion or mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the work as a means of en­forc­ing, against the work's users, your or third par­ties' le­gal rights to for­bid cir­cum­ven­tion of tech­no­log­i­cal mea­sures.

4. Con­vey­ing Ver­ba­tim Copies.

You may con­vey ver­ba­tim copies of the Pro­gram's source code as you re­ceive it, in any medium, pro­vided that you con­spic­u­ously and ap­pro­pri­ately pub­lish on each copy an ap­pro­pri­ate copy­right no­tice; keep in­tact all no­tices stat­ing that this Li­cense and any non-per­mis­sive terms added in ac­cord with sec­tion 7 ap­ply to the code; keep in­tact all no­tices of the ab­sence of any war­ranty; and give all re­cip­i­ents a copy of this Li­cense along with the Pro­gram.

You may charge any price or no price for each copy that you con­vey, and you may of­fer sup­port or war­ranty pro­tec­tion for a fee.

5. Con­vey­ing Mod­i­fied Source Ver­sions.

You may con­vey a work based on the Pro­gram, or the mod­i­fi­ca­tions to pro­duce it from the Pro­gram, in the form of source code un­der the terms of sec­tion 4, pro­vided that you also meet all of these con­di­tions:

  • a) The work must carry promi­nent no­tices stat­ing that you mod­i­fied it, and giv­ing a rel­e­vant date.
  • b) The work must carry promi­nent no­tices stat­ing that it is re­leased un­der this Li­cense and any con­di­tions added un­der sec­tion 7. This re­quire­ment mod­i­fies the re­quire­ment in sec­tion 4 to “keep in­tact all no­tices”.
  • c) You must li­cense the en­tire work, as a whole, un­der this Li­cense to any­one who comes into pos­ses­sion of a copy. This Li­cense will there­fore ap­ply, along with any ap­pli­ca­ble sec­tion 7 ad­di­tional terms, to the whole of the work, and all its parts, re­gard­less of how they are pack­aged. This Li­cense gives no per­mis­sion to li­cense the work in any other way, but it does not in­val­i­date such per­mis­sion if you have sep­a­rately re­ceived it.
  • d) If the work has in­ter­ac­tive user in­ter­faces, each must dis­play Ap­pro­pri­ate Le­gal No­tices; how­ever, if the Pro­gram has in­ter­ac­tive in­ter­faces that do not dis­play Ap­pro­pri­ate Le­gal No­tices, your work need not make them do so.

A com­pi­la­tion of a cov­ered work with other sep­a­rate and in­de­pen­dent works, which are not by their na­ture ex­ten­sions of the cov­ered work, and which are not com­bined with it such as to form a larger pro­gram, in or on a vol­ume of a stor­age or dis­tri­bu­tion medium, is called an “ag­gre­gate” if the com­pi­la­tion and its re­sult­ing copy­right are not used to limit the ac­cess or le­gal rights of the com­pi­la­tion's users be­yond what the in­di­vid­ual works per­mit. In­clu­sion of a cov­ered work in an ag­gre­gate does not cause this Li­cense to ap­ply to the other parts of the ag­gre­gate.

6. Con­vey­ing Non-Source Forms.

You may con­vey a cov­ered work in ob­ject code form un­der the terms of sec­tions 4 and 5, pro­vided that you also con­vey the ma­chine-read­able Cor­re­spond­ing Source un­der the terms of this Li­cense, in one of these ways:

  • a) Con­vey the ob­ject code in, or em­bod­ied in, a phys­i­cal prod­uct (in­clud­ing a phys­i­cal dis­tri­bu­tion medium), ac­com­pa­nied by the Cor­re­spond­ing Source fixed on a durable phys­i­cal medium cus­tom­ar­ily used for soft­ware in­ter­change.
  • b) Con­vey the ob­ject code in, or em­bod­ied in, a phys­i­cal prod­uct (in­clud­ing a phys­i­cal dis­tri­bu­tion medium), ac­com­pa­nied by a writ­ten of­fer, valid for at least three years and valid for as long as you of­fer spare parts or cus­tomer sup­port for that prod­uct model, to give any­one who pos­sesses the ob­ject code ei­ther (1) a copy of the Cor­re­spond­ing Source for all the soft­ware in the prod­uct that is cov­ered by this Li­cense, on a durable phys­i­cal medium cus­tom­ar­ily used for soft­ware in­ter­change, for a price no more than your rea­son­able cost of phys­i­cally per­form­ing this con­vey­ing of source, or (2) ac­cess to copy the Cor­re­spond­ing Source from a net­work server at no charge.
  • c) Con­vey in­di­vid­ual copies of the ob­ject code with a copy of the writ­ten of­fer to pro­vide the Cor­re­spond­ing Source. This al­ter­na­tive is al­lowed only oc­ca­sion­ally and non­com­mer­cially, and only if you re­ceived the ob­ject code with such an of­fer, in ac­cord with sub­sec­tion 6b.
  • d) Con­vey the ob­ject code by of­fer­ing ac­cess from a des­ig­nated place (gratis or for a charge), and of­fer equiv­a­lent ac­cess to the Cor­re­spond­ing Source in the same way through the same place at no fur­ther charge. You need not re­quire re­cip­i­ents to copy the Cor­re­spond­ing Source along with the ob­ject code. If the place to copy the ob­ject code is a net­work server, the Cor­re­spond­ing Source may be on a dif­fer­ent server (op­er­ated by you or a third party) that sup­ports equiv­a­lent copy­ing fa­cil­i­ties, pro­vided you main­tain clear di­rec­tions next to the ob­ject code say­ing where to find the Cor­re­spond­ing Source. Re­gard­less of what server hosts the Cor­re­spond­ing Source, you re­main ob­li­gated to en­sure that it is avail­able for as long as needed to sat­isfy these re­quire­ments.
  • e) Con­vey the ob­ject code us­ing peer-to-peer trans­mis­sion, pro­vided you in­form other peers where the ob­ject code and Cor­re­spond­ing Source of the work are be­ing of­fered to the gen­eral pub­lic at no charge un­der sub­sec­tion 6d.

A sep­a­ra­ble por­tion of the ob­ject code, whose source code is ex­cluded from the Cor­re­spond­ing Source as a Sys­tem Li­brary, need not be in­cluded in con­vey­ing the ob­ject code work.

A “User Prod­uct” is ei­ther (1) a “con­sumer prod­uct”, which means any tan­gi­ble per­sonal prop­erty which is nor­mally used for per­sonal, fam­ily, or house­hold pur­poses, or (2) any­thing de­signed or sold for in­cor­po­ra­tion into a dwelling. In de­ter­min­ing whether a prod­uct is a con­sumer prod­uct, doubt­ful cases shall be re­solved in fa­vor of cov­er­age. For a par­tic­u­lar prod­uct re­ceived by a par­tic­u­lar user, “nor­mally used” refers to a typ­i­cal or com­mon use of that class of prod­uct, re­gard­less of the sta­tus of the par­tic­u­lar user or of the way in which the par­tic­u­lar user ac­tu­ally uses, or ex­pects or is ex­pected to use, the prod­uct. A prod­uct is a con­sumer prod­uct re­gard­less of whether the prod­uct has sub­stan­tial com­mer­cial, in­dus­trial or non-con­sumer uses, un­less such uses rep­re­sent the only sig­nif­i­cant mode of use of the prod­uct.

“In­stal­la­tion In­for­ma­tion” for a User Prod­uct means any meth­ods, pro­ce­dures, au­tho­riza­tion keys, or other in­for­ma­tion re­quired to in­stall and ex­e­cute mod­i­fied ver­sions of a cov­ered work in that User Prod­uct from a mod­i­fied ver­sion of its Cor­re­spond­ing Source. The in­for­ma­tion must suf­fice to en­sure that the con­tin­ued func­tion­ing of the mod­i­fied ob­ject code is in no case pre­vented or in­ter­fered with solely be­cause mod­i­fi­ca­tion has been made.

If you con­vey an ob­ject code work un­der this sec­tion in, or with, or specif­i­cally for use in, a User Prod­uct, and the con­vey­ing oc­curs as part of a trans­ac­tion in which the right of pos­ses­sion and use of the User Prod­uct is trans­ferred to the re­cip­i­ent in per­pe­tu­ity or for a fixed term (re­gard­less of how the trans­ac­tion is char­ac­ter­ized), the Cor­re­spond­ing Source con­veyed un­der this sec­tion must be ac­com­pa­nied by the In­stal­la­tion In­for­ma­tion. But this re­quire­ment does not ap­ply if nei­ther you nor any third party re­tains the abil­ity to in­stall mod­i­fied ob­ject code on the User Prod­uct (for ex­am­ple, the work has been in­stalled in ROM).

The re­quire­ment to pro­vide In­stal­la­tion In­for­ma­tion does not in­clude a re­quire­ment to con­tinue to pro­vide sup­port ser­vice, war­ranty, or up­dates for a work that has been mod­i­fied or in­stalled by the re­cip­i­ent, or for the User Prod­uct in which it has been mod­i­fied or in­stalled. Ac­cess to a net­work may be de­nied when the mod­i­fi­ca­tion it­self ma­te­ri­ally and ad­versely af­fects the op­er­a­tion of the net­work or vi­o­lates the rules and pro­to­cols for com­mu­ni­ca­tion across the net­work.

Cor­re­spond­ing Source con­veyed, and In­stal­la­tion In­for­ma­tion pro­vided, in ac­cord with this sec­tion must be in a for­mat that is pub­licly doc­u­mented (and with an im­ple­men­ta­tion avail­able to the pub­lic in source code form), and must re­quire no spe­cial pass­word or key for un­pack­ing, read­ing or copy­ing.

7. Ad­di­tional Terms.

“Ad­di­tional per­mis­sions” are terms that sup­ple­ment the terms of this Li­cense by mak­ing ex­cep­tions from one or more of its con­di­tions. Ad­di­tional per­mis­sions that are ap­pli­ca­ble to the en­tire Pro­gram shall be treated as though they were in­cluded in this Li­cense, to the ex­tent that they are valid un­der ap­pli­ca­ble law. If ad­di­tional per­mis­sions ap­ply only to part of the Pro­gram, that part may be used sep­a­rately un­der those per­mis­sions, but the en­tire Pro­gram re­mains gov­erned by this Li­cense with­out re­gard to the ad­di­tional per­mis­sions.

When you con­vey a copy of a cov­ered work, you may at your op­tion re­move any ad­di­tional per­mis­sions from that copy, or from any part of it. (Ad­di­tional per­mis­sions may be writ­ten to re­quire their own re­moval in cer­tain cases when you mod­ify the work.) You may place ad­di­tional per­mis­sions on ma­te­rial, added by you to a cov­ered work, for which you have or can give ap­pro­pri­ate copy­right per­mis­sion.

Notwith­stand­ing any other pro­vi­sion of this Li­cense, for ma­te­rial you add to a cov­ered work, you may (if au­tho­rized by the copy­right hold­ers of that ma­te­rial) sup­ple­ment the terms of this Li­cense with terms:

  • a) Dis­claim­ing war­ranty or lim­it­ing li­a­bil­ity dif­fer­ently from the terms of sec­tions 15 and 16 of this Li­cense; or
  • b) Re­quir­ing preser­va­tion of spec­i­fied rea­son­able le­gal no­tices or au­thor at­tri­bu­tions in that ma­te­rial or in the Ap­pro­pri­ate Le­gal No­tices dis­played by works con­tain­ing it; or
  • c) Pro­hibit­ing mis­rep­re­sen­ta­tion of the ori­gin of that ma­te­rial, or re­quir­ing that mod­i­fied ver­sions of such ma­te­rial be marked in rea­son­able ways as dif­fer­ent from the orig­i­nal ver­sion; or
  • d) Lim­it­ing the use for pub­lic­ity pur­poses of names of li­cen­sors or au­thors of the ma­te­rial; or
  • e) De­clin­ing to grant rights un­der trade­mark law for use of some trade names, trade­marks, or ser­vice marks; or
  • f) Re­quir­ing in­dem­ni­fi­ca­tion of li­cen­sors and au­thors of that ma­te­rial by any­one who con­veys the ma­te­rial (or mod­i­fied ver­sions of it) with con­trac­tual as­sump­tions of li­a­bil­ity to the re­cip­i­ent, for any li­a­bil­ity that these con­trac­tual as­sump­tions di­rectly im­pose on those li­cen­sors and au­thors.

All other non-per­mis­sive ad­di­tional terms are con­sid­ered “fur­ther re­stric­tions” within the mean­ing of sec­tion 10. If the Pro­gram as you re­ceived it, or any part of it, con­tains a no­tice stat­ing that it is gov­erned by this Li­cense along with a term that is a fur­ther re­stric­tion, you may re­move that term. If a li­cense doc­u­ment con­tains a fur­ther re­stric­tion but per­mits re­li­cens­ing or con­vey­ing un­der this Li­cense, you may add to a cov­ered work ma­te­rial gov­erned by the terms of that li­cense doc­u­ment, pro­vided that the fur­ther re­stric­tion does not sur­vive such re­li­cens­ing or con­vey­ing.

If you add terms to a cov­ered work in ac­cord with this sec­tion, you must place, in the rel­e­vant source files, a state­ment of the ad­di­tional terms that ap­ply to those files, or a no­tice in­di­cat­ing where to find the ap­pli­ca­ble terms.

Ad­di­tional terms, per­mis­sive or non-per­mis­sive, may be stated in the form of a sep­a­rately writ­ten li­cense, or stated as ex­cep­tions; the above re­quire­ments ap­ply ei­ther way.

8. Ter­mi­na­tion.

You may not prop­a­gate or mod­ify a cov­ered work ex­cept as ex­pressly pro­vided un­der this Li­cense. Any at­tempt oth­er­wise to prop­a­gate or mod­ify it is void, and will au­to­mat­i­cally ter­mi­nate your rights un­der this Li­cense (in­clud­ing any patent li­censes granted un­der the third para­graph of sec­tion 11).

How­ever, if you cease all vi­o­la­tion of this Li­cense, then your li­cense from a par­tic­u­lar copy­right holder is re­in­stated (a) pro­vi­sion­ally, un­less and un­til the copy­right holder ex­plic­itly and fi­nally ter­mi­nates your li­cense, and (b) per­ma­nently, if the copy­right holder fails to no­tify you of the vi­o­la­tion by some rea­son­able means prior to 60 days af­ter the ces­sa­tion.

More­over, your li­cense from a par­tic­u­lar copy­right holder is re­in­stated per­ma­nently if the copy­right holder no­ti­fies you of the vi­o­la­tion by some rea­son­able means, this is the first time you have re­ceived no­tice of vi­o­la­tion of this Li­cense (for any work) from that copy­right holder, and you cure the vi­o­la­tion prior to 30 days af­ter your re­ceipt of the no­tice.

Ter­mi­na­tion of your rights un­der this sec­tion does not ter­mi­nate the li­censes of par­ties who have re­ceived copies or rights from you un­der this Li­cense. If your rights have been ter­mi­nated and not per­ma­nently re­in­stated, you do not qual­ify to re­ceive new li­censes for the same ma­te­rial un­der sec­tion 10.

9. Ac­cep­tance Not Re­quired for Hav­ing Copies.

You are not re­quired to ac­cept this Li­cense in or­der to re­ceive or run a copy of the Pro­gram. An­cil­lary prop­a­ga­tion of a cov­ered work oc­cur­ring solely as a con­se­quence of us­ing peer-to-peer trans­mis­sion to re­ceive a copy like­wise does not re­quire ac­cep­tance. How­ever, noth­ing other than this Li­cense grants you per­mis­sion to prop­a­gate or mod­ify any cov­ered work. Th­ese ac­tions in­fringe copy­right if you do not ac­cept this Li­cense. There­fore, by mod­i­fy­ing or prop­a­gat­ing a cov­ered work, you in­di­cate your ac­cep­tance of this Li­cense to do so.

10. Au­to­matic Li­cens­ing of Down­stream Re­cip­i­ents.

Each time you con­vey a cov­ered work, the re­cip­i­ent au­to­mat­i­cally re­ceives a li­cense from the orig­i­nal li­cen­sors, to run, mod­ify and prop­a­gate that work, sub­ject to this Li­cense. You are not re­spon­si­ble for en­forc­ing com­pli­ance by third par­ties with this Li­cense.

An “en­tity trans­ac­tion” is a trans­ac­tion trans­fer­ring con­trol of an or­ga­ni­za­tion, or sub­stan­tially all as­sets of one, or sub­di­vid­ing an or­ga­ni­za­tion, or merg­ing or­ga­ni­za­tions. If prop­a­ga­tion of a cov­ered work re­sults from an en­tity trans­ac­tion, each party to that trans­ac­tion who re­ceives a copy of the work also re­ceives what­ever li­censes to the work the party's pre­de­ces­sor in in­ter­est had or could give un­der the pre­vi­ous para­graph, plus a right to pos­ses­sion of the Cor­re­spond­ing Source of the work from the pre­de­ces­sor in in­ter­est, if the pre­de­ces­sor has it or can get it with rea­son­able ef­forts.

You may not im­pose any fur­ther re­stric­tions on the ex­er­cise of the rights granted or af­firmed un­der this Li­cense. For ex­am­ple, you may not im­pose a li­cense fee, roy­alty, or other charge for ex­er­cise of rights granted un­der this Li­cense, and you may not ini­ti­ate lit­i­ga­tion (in­clud­ing a cross-claim or coun­ter­claim in a law­suit) al­leg­ing that any patent claim is in­fringed by mak­ing, us­ing, sell­ing, of­fer­ing for sale, or im­port­ing the Pro­gram or any por­tion of it.

11. Pa­tents.

A “con­trib­u­tor” is a copy­right holder who au­tho­rizes use un­der this Li­cense of the Pro­gram or a work on which the Pro­gram is based. The work thus li­censed is called the con­trib­u­tor's “con­trib­u­tor ver­sion”.

A con­trib­u­tor's “es­sen­tial patent claims” are all patent claims owned or con­trolled by the con­trib­u­tor, whether al­ready ac­quired or here­after ac­quired, that would be in­fringed by some man­ner, per­mit­ted by this Li­cense, of mak­ing, us­ing, or sell­ing its con­trib­u­tor ver­sion, but do not in­clude claims that would be in­fringed only as a con­se­quence of fur­ther mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the con­trib­u­tor ver­sion. For pur­poses of this def­i­ni­tion, “con­trol” in­cludes the right to grant patent sub­li­censes in a man­ner con­sis­tent with the re­quire­ments of this Li­cense.

Each con­trib­u­tor grants you a non-ex­clu­sive, world­wide, roy­alty-free patent li­cense un­der the con­trib­u­tor's es­sen­tial patent claims, to make, use, sell, of­fer for sale, im­port and oth­er­wise run, mod­ify and prop­a­gate the con­tents of its con­trib­u­tor ver­sion.

In the fol­low­ing three para­graphs, a “patent li­cense” is any ex­press agree­ment or com­mit­ment, how­ever de­nom­i­nated, not to en­force a patent (such as an ex­press per­mis­sion to prac­tice a patent or covenant not to sue for patent in­fringe­ment). To “grant” such a patent li­cense to a party means to make such an agree­ment or com­mit­ment not to en­force a patent against the party.

If you con­vey a cov­ered work, know­ingly re­ly­ing on a patent li­cense, and the Cor­re­spond­ing Source of the work is not avail­able for any­one to copy, free of charge and un­der the terms of this Li­cense, through a pub­licly avail­able net­work server or other read­ily ac­ces­si­ble means, then you must ei­ther (1) cause the Cor­re­spond­ing Source to be so avail­able, or (2) ar­range to de­prive your­self of the ben­e­fit of the patent li­cense for this par­tic­u­lar work, or (3) ar­range, in a man­ner con­sis­tent with the re­quire­ments of this Li­cense, to ex­tend the patent li­cense to down­stream re­cip­i­ents. “Know­ingly re­ly­ing” means you have ac­tual knowl­edge that, but for the patent li­cense, your con­vey­ing the cov­ered work in a coun­try, or your re­cip­i­ent's use of the cov­ered work in a coun­try, would in­fringe one or more iden­ti­fi­able patents in that coun­try that you have rea­son to be­lieve are valid.

If, pur­suant to or in con­nec­tion with a sin­gle trans­ac­tion or ar­range­ment, you con­vey, or prop­a­gate by procur­ing con­veyance of, a cov­ered work, and grant a patent li­cense to some of the par­ties re­ceiv­ing the cov­ered work au­tho­riz­ing them to use, prop­a­gate, mod­ify or con­vey a spe­cific copy of the cov­ered work, then the patent li­cense you grant is au­to­mat­i­cally ex­tended to all re­cip­i­ents of the cov­ered work and works based on it.

A patent li­cense is “dis­crim­i­na­tory” if it does not in­clude within the scope of its cov­er­age, pro­hibits the ex­er­cise of, or is con­di­tioned on the non-ex­er­cise of one or more of the rights that are specif­i­cally granted un­der this Li­cense. You may not con­vey a cov­ered work if you are a party to an ar­range­ment with a third party that is in the busi­ness of dis­tribut­ing soft­ware, un­der which you make pay­ment to the third party based on the ex­tent of your ac­tiv­ity of con­vey­ing the work, and un­der which the third party grants, to any of the par­ties who would re­ceive the cov­ered work from you, a dis­crim­i­na­tory patent li­cense (a) in con­nec­tion with copies of the cov­ered work con­veyed by you (or copies made from those copies), or (b) pri­mar­ily for and in con­nec­tion with spe­cific prod­ucts or com­pi­la­tions that con­tain the cov­ered work, un­less you en­tered into that ar­range­ment, or that patent li­cense was granted, prior to 28 March 2007.

Noth­ing in this Li­cense shall be con­strued as ex­clud­ing or lim­it­ing any im­plied li­cense or other de­fenses to in­fringe­ment that may oth­er­wise be avail­able to you un­der ap­pli­ca­ble patent law.

12. No Sur­ren­der of Others' Free­dom.

If con­di­tions are im­posed on you (whether by court or­der, agree­ment or oth­er­wise) that con­tra­dict the con­di­tions of this Li­cense, they do not ex­cuse you from the con­di­tions of this Li­cense. If you can­not con­vey a cov­ered work so as to sat­isfy si­mul­ta­ne­ously your obli­ga­tions un­der this Li­cense and any other per­ti­nent obli­ga­tions, then as a con­se­quence you may not con­vey it at all. For ex­am­ple, if you agree to terms that ob­li­gate you to col­lect a roy­alty for fur­ther con­vey­ing from those to whom you con­vey the Pro­gram, the only way you could sat­isfy both those terms and this Li­cense would be to re­frain en­tirely from con­vey­ing the Pro­gram.

13. Use with the GNU Af­fero Gen­eral Public Li­cense.

Notwith­stand­ing any other pro­vi­sion of this Li­cense, you have per­mis­sion to link or com­bine any cov­ered work with a work li­censed un­der ver­sion 3 of the GNU Af­fero Gen­eral Public Li­cense into a sin­gle com­bined work, and to con­vey the re­sult­ing work. The terms of this Li­cense will con­tinue to ap­ply to the part which is the cov­ered work, but the spe­cial re­quire­ments of the GNU Af­fero Gen­eral Public Li­cense, sec­tion 13, con­cern­ing in­ter­ac­tion through a net­work will ap­ply to the com­bi­na­tion as such.

14. Re­vised Ver­sions of this Li­cense.

The Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion may pub­lish re­vised and/or new ver­sions of the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense from time to time. Such new ver­sions will be sim­i­lar in spirit to the present ver­sion, but may dif­fer in de­tail to ad­dress new prob­lems or con­cerns.

Each ver­sion is given a dis­tin­guish­ing ver­sion num­ber. If the Pro­gram spec­i­fies that a cer­tain num­bered ver­sion of the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense “or any later ver­sion” ap­plies to it, you have the op­tion of fol­low­ing the terms and con­di­tions ei­ther of that num­bered ver­sion or of any later ver­sion pub­lished by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion. If the Pro­gram does not spec­ify a ver­sion num­ber of the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense, you may choose any ver­sion ever pub­lished by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion.

If the Pro­gram spec­i­fies that a proxy can de­cide which fu­ture ver­sions of the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense can be used, that proxy's pub­lic state­ment of ac­cep­tance of a ver­sion per­ma­nently au­tho­rizes you to choose that ver­sion for the Pro­gram.

Later li­cense ver­sions may give you ad­di­tional or dif­fer­ent per­mis­sions. How­ever, no ad­di­tional obli­ga­tions are im­posed on any au­thor or copy­right holder as a re­sult of your choos­ing to fol­low a later ver­sion.

15. Dis­claimer of War­ranty.


16. Lim­i­ta­tion of Li­a­bil­ity.


17. In­ter­pre­ta­tion of Sec­tions 15 and 16.

If the dis­claimer of war­ranty and lim­i­ta­tion of li­a­bil­ity pro­vided above can­not be given lo­cal le­gal ef­fect ac­cord­ing to their terms, re­view­ing courts shall ap­ply lo­cal law that most closely ap­prox­i­mates an ab­so­lute waiver of all civil li­a­bil­ity in con­nec­tion with the Pro­gram, un­less a war­ranty or as­sump­tion of li­a­bil­ity ac­com­pa­nies a copy of the Pro­gram in re­turn for a fee.


How to Ap­ply Th­ese Terms to Your New Pro­grams

If you de­velop a new pro­gram, and you want it to be of the great­est pos­si­ble use to the pub­lic, the best way to achieve this is to make it free soft­ware which ev­ery­one can re­dis­tribute and change un­der these terms.

To do so, at­tach the fol­low­ing no­tices to the pro­gram. It is safest to at­tach them to the start of each source file to most ef­fec­tively state the ex­clu­sion of war­ranty; and each file should have at least the “copy­right” line and a pointer to where the full no­tice is found.

<one line to give the program's name and a brief idea of what it does.>
Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as
published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of
the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with this program.  If not, see <>.

Also add in­for­ma­tion on how to con­tact you by elec­tronic and pa­per mail.

If the pro­gram does ter­mi­nal in­ter­ac­tion, make it out­put a short no­tice like this when it starts in an in­ter­ac­tive mode:

<program>  Copyright (C) <year>  <name of author>

This program comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details type `show w'.
This is free software, and you are welcome to redistribute it
under certain conditions; type `show c' for details.

The hy­po­thet­i­cal com­mands `show w' and `show c' should show the ap­pro­pri­ate parts of the Gen­eral Public Li­cense. Of course, your pro­gram's com­mands might be dif­fer­ent; for a GUI in­ter­face, you would use an “about box”.

You should also get your em­ployer (if you work as a pro­gram­mer) or school, if any, to sign a “copy­right dis­claimer” for the pro­gram, if nec­es­sary. For more in­for­ma­tion on this, and how to ap­ply and fol­low the GNU GPL, see <­censes/>.

The GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense does not per­mit in­cor­po­rat­ing your pro­gram into pro­pri­etary pro­grams. If your pro­gram is a sub­rou­tine li­brary, you may con­sider it more use­ful to per­mit link­ing pro­pri­etary ap­pli­ca­tions with the li­brary. If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Lesser Gen­eral Public Li­cense in­stead of this Li­cense. But first, please read <­los­o­phy/why-not-lgpl.html>.


Fur­ther in­for­ma­tion about this type of li­cense is avail­able from GNU

Attention Please check the soft­ware's li­cense be­fore us­ing the soft­ware.

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