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GNU Free Doc­u­men­ta­tion Li­cense

Ver­sion 1.3, 3 Novem­ber 2008

Copy­right © 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion, Inc. <>

Every­one is per­mit­ted to copy and dis­tribute ver­ba­tim copies of this li­cense doc­u­ment, but chang­ing it is not al­lowed.


The pur­pose of this Li­cense is to make a man­ual, text­book, or other func­tional and use­ful doc­u­ment “free” in the sense of free­dom: to as­sure ev­ery­one the ef­fec­tive free­dom to copy and re­dis­tribute it, with or with­out mod­i­fy­ing it, ei­ther com­mer­cially or non­com­mer­cially. Se­con­dar­ily, this Li­cense pre­serves for the au­thor and pub­lisher a way to get credit for their work, while not be­ing con­sid­ered re­spon­si­ble for mod­i­fi­ca­tions made by oth­ers.

This Li­cense is a kind of “copy­left”, which means that deriva­tive works of the doc­u­ment must them­selves be free in the same sense. It com­ple­ments the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense, which is a copy­left li­cense de­signed for free soft­ware.

We have de­signed this Li­cense in or­der to use it for man­u­als for free soft­ware, be­cause free soft­ware needs free doc­u­men­ta­tion: a free pro­gram should come with man­u­als pro­vid­ing the same free­doms that the soft­ware does. But this Li­cense is not lim­ited to soft­ware man­u­als; it can be used for any tex­tual work, re­gard­less of sub­ject mat­ter or whether it is pub­lished as a printed book. We rec­om­mend this Li­cense prin­ci­pally for works whose pur­pose is in­struc­tion or ref­er­ence.


This Li­cense ap­plies to any man­ual or other work, in any medium, that con­tains a no­tice placed by the copy­right holder say­ing it can be dis­tributed un­der the terms of this Li­cense. Such a no­tice grants a world-wide, roy­alty-free li­cense, un­lim­ited in du­ra­tion, to use that work un­der the con­di­tions stated herein. The “Doc­u­ment”, be­low, refers to any such man­ual or work. Any mem­ber of the pub­lic is a li­censee, and is ad­dressed as “you”. You ac­cept the li­cense if you copy, mod­ify or dis­tribute the work in a way re­quir­ing per­mis­sion un­der copy­right law.

A “Mod­i­fied Ver­sion” of the Doc­u­ment means any work con­tain­ing the Doc­u­ment or a por­tion of it, ei­ther copied ver­ba­tim, or with mod­i­fi­ca­tions and/or trans­lated into an­other lan­guage.

A “Se­condary Sec­tion” is a named ap­pendix or a front-mat­ter sec­tion of the Doc­u­ment that deals ex­clu­sively with the re­la­tion­ship of the pub­lish­ers or au­thors of the Doc­u­ment to the Doc­u­ment's over­all sub­ject (or to re­lated mat­ters) and con­tains noth­ing that could fall di­rectly within that over­all sub­ject. (Thus, if the Doc­u­ment is in part a text­book of math­e­mat­ics, a Se­condary Sec­tion may not ex­plain any math­e­mat­ics.) The re­la­tion­ship could be a mat­ter of his­tor­i­cal con­nec­tion with the sub­ject or with re­lated mat­ters, or of le­gal, com­mer­cial, philo­soph­i­cal, eth­i­cal or po­lit­i­cal po­si­tion re­gard­ing them.

The “In­vari­ant Sec­tions” are cer­tain Se­condary Sec­tions whose ti­tles are des­ig­nated, as be­ing those of In­vari­ant Sec­tions, in the no­tice that says that the Doc­u­ment is re­leased un­der this Li­cense. If a sec­tion does not fit the above def­i­ni­tion of Se­condary then it is not al­lowed to be des­ig­nated as In­vari­ant. The Doc­u­ment may con­tain zero In­vari­ant Sec­tions. If the Doc­u­ment does not iden­tify any In­vari­ant Sec­tions then there are none.

The “Cover Texts” are cer­tain short pas­sages of text that are listed, as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the no­tice that says that the Doc­u­ment is re­leased un­der this Li­cense. A Front-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.

A “Trans­par­ent” copy of the Doc­u­ment means a ma­chine-read­able copy, rep­re­sented in a for­mat whose spec­i­fi­ca­tion is avail­able to the gen­eral pub­lic, that is suit­able for re­vis­ing the doc­u­ment straight­for­wardly with generic text ed­i­tors or (for im­ages com­posed of pix­els) generic paint pro­grams or (for draw­ings) some widely avail­able draw­ing ed­i­tor, and that is suit­able for in­put to text for­mat­ters or for au­to­matic trans­la­tion to a va­ri­ety of for­mats suit­able for in­put to text for­mat­ters. A copy made in an oth­er­wise Trans­par­ent file for­mat whose markup, or ab­sence of markup, has been ar­ranged to thwart or dis­cour­age sub­se­quent mod­i­fi­ca­tion by read­ers is not Trans­par­ent. An im­age for­mat is not Trans­par­ent if used for any sub­stan­tial amount of text. A copy that is not “Trans­par­ent” is called “Opaque”.

Ex­am­ples of suit­able for­mats for Trans­par­ent copies in­clude plain ASCII with­out markup, Tex­info in­put for­mat, LaTeX in­put for­mat, SGML or XML us­ing a pub­licly avail­able DTD, and stan­dard-con­form­ing sim­ple HTML, PostScript or PDF de­signed for hu­man mod­i­fi­ca­tion. Ex­am­ples of trans­par­ent im­age for­mats in­clude PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque for­mats in­clude pro­pri­etary for­mats that can be read and edited only by pro­pri­etary word pro­ces­sors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or pro­cess­ing tools are not gen­er­ally avail­able, and the ma­chine-gen­er­ated HTML, PostScript or PDF pro­duced by some word pro­ces­sors for out­put pur­poses only.

The “Ti­tle Page” means, for a printed book, the ti­tle page it­self, plus such fol­low­ing pages as are needed to hold, leg­i­bly, the ma­te­rial this Li­cense re­quires to ap­pear in the ti­tle page. For works in for­mats which do not have any ti­tle page as such, “Ti­tle Page” means the text near the most promi­nent ap­pear­ance of the work's ti­tle, pre­ced­ing the be­gin­ning of the body of the text.

The “pub­lisher” means any per­son or en­tity that dis­tributes copies of the Doc­u­ment to the pub­lic.

A sec­tion “En­ti­tled XYZ” means a named sub­unit of the Doc­u­ment whose ti­tle ei­ther is pre­cisely XYZ or con­tains XYZ in paren­the­ses fol­low­ing text that trans­lates XYZ in an­other lan­guage. (Here XYZ stands for a spe­cific sec­tion name men­tioned be­low, such as “Ac­knowl­edge­ments”, “Ded­i­ca­tions”, “En­dorse­ments”, or “His­tory”.) To “Pre­serve the Ti­tle” of such a sec­tion when you mod­ify the Doc­u­ment means that it re­mains a sec­tion “En­ti­tled XYZ” ac­cord­ing to this def­i­ni­tion.

The Doc­u­ment may in­clude War­ranty Dis­claimers next to the no­tice which states that this Li­cense ap­plies to the Doc­u­ment. Th­ese War­ranty Dis­claimers are con­sid­ered to be in­cluded by ref­er­ence in this Li­cense, but only as re­gards dis­claim­ing war­ranties: any other im­pli­ca­tion that these War­ranty Dis­claimers may have is void and has no ef­fect on the mean­ing of this Li­cense.


You may copy and dis­tribute the Doc­u­ment in any medium, ei­ther com­mer­cially or non­com­mer­cially, pro­vided that this Li­cense, the copy­right no­tices, and the li­cense no­tice say­ing this Li­cense ap­plies to the Doc­u­ment are re­pro­duced in all copies, and that you add no other con­di­tions what­so­ever to those of this Li­cense. You may not use tech­ni­cal mea­sures to ob­struct or con­trol the read­ing or fur­ther copy­ing of the copies you make or dis­tribute. How­ever, you may ac­cept com­pen­sa­tion in ex­change for copies. If you dis­tribute a large enough num­ber of copies you must also fol­low the con­di­tions in sec­tion 3.

You may also lend copies, un­der the same con­di­tions stated above, and you may pub­licly dis­play copies.


If you pub­lish printed copies (or copies in me­dia that com­monly have printed cov­ers) of the Doc­u­ment, num­ber­ing more than 100, and the Doc­u­ment's li­cense no­tice re­quires Cover Texts, you must en­close the copies in cov­ers that carry, clearly and leg­i­bly, all these Cover Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on the back cover. Both cov­ers must also clearly and leg­i­bly iden­tify you as the pub­lisher of these copies. The front cover must present the full ti­tle with all words of the ti­tle equally promi­nent and vis­i­ble. You may add other ma­te­rial on the cov­ers in ad­di­tion. Copy­ing with changes lim­ited to the cov­ers, as long as they pre­serve the ti­tle of the Doc­u­ment and sat­isfy these con­di­tions, can be treated as ver­ba­tim copy­ing in other re­spects.

If the re­quired texts for ei­ther cover are too vo­lu­mi­nous to fit leg­i­bly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit rea­son­ably) on the ac­tual cover, and con­tinue the rest onto ad­ja­cent pages.

If you pub­lish or dis­tribute Opaque copies of the Doc­u­ment num­ber­ing more than 100, you must ei­ther in­clude a ma­chine-read­able Trans­par­ent copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy a com­puter-net­work lo­ca­tion from which the gen­eral net­work-us­ing pub­lic has ac­cess to down­load us­ing pub­lic-stan­dard net­work pro­to­cols a com­plete Trans­par­ent copy of the Doc­u­ment, free of added ma­te­rial. If you use the lat­ter op­tion, you must take rea­son­ably pru­dent steps, when you be­gin dis­tri­bu­tion of Opaque copies in quan­tity, to en­sure that this Trans­par­ent copy will re­main thus ac­ces­si­ble at the stated lo­ca­tion un­til at least one year af­ter the last time you dis­tribute an Opaque copy (di­rectly or through your agents or re­tail­ers) of that edi­tion to the pub­lic.

It is re­quested, but not re­quired, that you con­tact the au­thors of the Doc­u­ment well be­fore re­dis­tribut­ing any large num­ber of copies, to give them a chance to pro­vide you with an up­dated ver­sion of the Doc­u­ment.


You may copy and dis­tribute a Mod­i­fied Ver­sion of the Doc­u­ment un­der the con­di­tions of sec­tions 2 and 3 above, pro­vided that you re­lease the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion un­der pre­cisely this Li­cense, with the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion fill­ing the role of the Doc­u­ment, thus li­cens­ing dis­tri­bu­tion and mod­i­fi­ca­tion of the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion to who­ever pos­sesses a copy of it. In ad­di­tion, you must do these things in the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion:

A. Use in the Ti­tle Page (and on the cov­ers, if any) a ti­tle dis­tinct from that of the Doc­u­ment, and from those of pre­vi­ous ver­sions (which should, if there were any, be listed in the His­tory sec­tion of the Doc­u­ment). You may use the same ti­tle as a pre­vi­ous ver­sion if the orig­i­nal pub­lisher of that ver­sion gives per­mis­sion.

B. List on the Ti­tle Page, as au­thors, one or more per­sons or en­ti­ties re­spon­si­ble for au­thor­ship of the mod­i­fi­ca­tions in the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion, to­gether with at least five of the prin­ci­pal au­thors of the Doc­u­ment (all of its prin­ci­pal au­thors, if it has fewer than five), un­less they re­lease you from this re­quire­ment.

C. State on the Ti­tle page the name of the pub­lisher of the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion, as the pub­lisher.

D. Pre­serve all the copy­right no­tices of the Doc­u­ment.

E. Add an ap­pro­pri­ate copy­right no­tice for your mod­i­fi­ca­tions ad­ja­cent to the other copy­right no­tices.

F. In­clude, im­me­di­ately af­ter the copy­right no­tices, a li­cense no­tice giv­ing the pub­lic per­mis­sion to use the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion un­der the terms of this Li­cense, in the form shown in the Ad­den­dum be­low.

G. Pre­serve in that li­cense no­tice the full lists of In­vari­ant Sec­tions and re­quired Cover Texts given in the Doc­u­ment's li­cense no­tice.

H. In­clude an un­al­tered copy of this Li­cense.

I. Pre­serve the sec­tion En­ti­tled “His­tory”, Pre­serve its Ti­tle, and add to it an item stat­ing at least the ti­tle, year, new au­thors, and pub­lisher of the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion as given on the Ti­tle Page. If there is no sec­tion En­ti­tled “His­tory” in the Doc­u­ment, cre­ate one stat­ing the ti­tle, year, au­thors, and pub­lisher of the Doc­u­ment as given on its Ti­tle Page, then add an item de­scrib­ing the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion as stated in the pre­vi­ous sen­tence.

J. Pre­serve the net­work lo­ca­tion, if any, given in the Doc­u­ment for pub­lic ac­cess to a Trans­par­ent copy of the Doc­u­ment, and like­wise the net­work lo­ca­tions given in the Doc­u­ment for pre­vi­ous ver­sions it was based on. Th­ese may be placed in the “His­tory” sec­tion. You may omit a net­work lo­ca­tion for a work that was pub­lished at least four years be­fore the Doc­u­ment it­self, or if the orig­i­nal pub­lisher of the ver­sion it refers to gives per­mis­sion.

K. For any sec­tion En­ti­tled “Ac­knowl­edge­ments” or “Ded­i­ca­tions”, Pre­serve the Ti­tle of the sec­tion, and pre­serve in the sec­tion all the sub­stance and tone of each of the con­trib­u­tor ac­knowl­edge­ments and/or ded­i­ca­tions given therein.

L. Pre­serve all the In­vari­ant Sec­tions of the Doc­u­ment, un­al­tered in their text and in their ti­tles. Sec­tion num­bers or the equiv­a­lent are not con­sid­ered part of the sec­tion ti­tles.

M. Delete any sec­tion En­ti­tled “En­dorse­ments”. Such a sec­tion may not be in­cluded in the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion.

N. Do not reti­tle any ex­ist­ing sec­tion to be En­ti­tled “En­dorse­ments” or to con­flict in ti­tle with any In­vari­ant Sec­tion.

O. Pre­serve any War­ranty Dis­claimers.

If the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion in­cludes new front-mat­ter sec­tions or ap­pen­dices that qual­ify as Se­condary Sec­tions and con­tain no ma­te­rial copied from the Doc­u­ment, you may at your op­tion des­ig­nate some or all of these sec­tions as in­vari­ant. To do this, add their ti­tles to the list of In­vari­ant Sec­tions in the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion's li­cense no­tice. Th­ese ti­tles must be dis­tinct from any other sec­tion ti­tles.

You may add a sec­tion En­ti­tled “En­dorse­ments”, pro­vided it con­tains noth­ing but en­dorse­ments of your Mod­i­fied Ver­sion by var­i­ous par­ties—for ex­am­ple, state­ments of peer re­view or that the text has been ap­proved by an or­ga­ni­za­tion as the au­thor­i­ta­tive def­i­ni­tion of a stan­dard.

You may add a pas­sage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a pas­sage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list of Cover Texts in the Mod­i­fied Ver­sion. Only one pas­sage of Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or through ar­range­ments made by) any one en­tity. If the Doc­u­ment al­ready in­cludes a cover text for the same cover, pre­vi­ously added by you or by ar­range­ment made by the same en­tity you are act­ing on be­half of, you may not add an­other; but you may re­place the old one, on ex­plicit per­mis­sion from the pre­vi­ous pub­lisher that added the old one.

The au­thor(s) and pub­lisher(s) of the Doc­u­ment do not by this Li­cense give per­mis­sion to use their names for pub­lic­ity for or to as­sert or im­ply en­dorse­ment of any Mod­i­fied Ver­sion.


You may com­bine the Doc­u­ment with other doc­u­ments re­leased un­der this Li­cense, un­der the terms de­fined in sec­tion 4 above for mod­i­fied ver­sions, pro­vided that you in­clude in the com­bi­na­tion all of the In­vari­ant Sec­tions of all of the orig­i­nal doc­u­ments, un­mod­i­fied, and list them all as In­vari­ant Sec­tions of your com­bined work in its li­cense no­tice, and that you pre­serve all their War­ranty Dis­claimers.

The com­bined work need only con­tain one copy of this Li­cense, and mul­ti­ple iden­ti­cal In­vari­ant Sec­tions may be re­placed with a sin­gle copy. If there are mul­ti­ple In­vari­ant Sec­tions with the same name but dif­fer­ent con­tents, make the ti­tle of each such sec­tion unique by adding at the end of it, in paren­the­ses, the name of the orig­i­nal au­thor or pub­lisher of that sec­tion if known, or else a unique num­ber. Make the same ad­just­ment to the sec­tion ti­tles in the list of In­vari­ant Sec­tions in the li­cense no­tice of the com­bined work.

In the com­bi­na­tion, you must com­bine any sec­tions En­ti­tled “His­tory” in the var­i­ous orig­i­nal doc­u­ments, form­ing one sec­tion En­ti­tled “His­tory”; like­wise com­bine any sec­tions En­ti­tled “Ac­knowl­edge­ments”, and any sec­tions En­ti­tled “Ded­i­ca­tions”. You must delete all sec­tions En­ti­tled “En­dorse­ments”.


You may make a col­lec­tion con­sist­ing of the Doc­u­ment and other doc­u­ments re­leased un­der this Li­cense, and re­place the in­di­vid­ual copies of this Li­cense in the var­i­ous doc­u­ments with a sin­gle copy that is in­cluded in the col­lec­tion, pro­vided that you fol­low the rules of this Li­cense for ver­ba­tim copy­ing of each of the doc­u­ments in all other re­spects.

You may ex­tract a sin­gle doc­u­ment from such a col­lec­tion, and dis­tribute it in­di­vid­u­ally un­der this Li­cense, pro­vided you in­sert a copy of this Li­cense into the ex­tracted doc­u­ment, and fol­low this Li­cense in all other re­spects re­gard­ing ver­ba­tim copy­ing of that doc­u­ment.


A com­pi­la­tion of the Doc­u­ment or its deriva­tives with other sep­a­rate and in­de­pen­dent doc­u­ments or works, in or on a vol­ume of a stor­age or dis­tri­bu­tion medium, is called an “ag­gre­gate” if the copy­right re­sult­ing from the com­pi­la­tion is not used to limit the le­gal rights of the com­pi­la­tion's users be­yond what the in­di­vid­ual works per­mit. When the Doc­u­ment is in­cluded in an ag­gre­gate, this Li­cense does not ap­ply to the other works in the ag­gre­gate which are not them­selves deriva­tive works of the Doc­u­ment.

If the Cover Text re­quire­ment of sec­tion 3 is ap­pli­ca­ble to these copies of the Doc­u­ment, then if the Doc­u­ment is less than one half of the en­tire ag­gre­gate, the Doc­u­ment's Cover Texts may be placed on cov­ers that bracket the Doc­u­ment within the ag­gre­gate, or the elec­tronic equiv­a­lent of cov­ers if the Doc­u­ment is in elec­tronic form. Other­wise they must ap­pear on printed cov­ers that bracket the whole ag­gre­gate.


Trans­la­tion is con­sid­ered a kind of mod­i­fi­ca­tion, so you may dis­tribute trans­la­tions of the Doc­u­ment un­der the terms of sec­tion 4. Re­plac­ing In­vari­ant Sec­tions with trans­la­tions re­quires spe­cial per­mis­sion from their copy­right hold­ers, but you may in­clude trans­la­tions of some or all In­vari­ant Sec­tions in ad­di­tion to the orig­i­nal ver­sions of these In­vari­ant Sec­tions. You may in­clude a trans­la­tion of this Li­cense, and all the li­cense no­tices in the Doc­u­ment, and any War­ranty Dis­claimers, pro­vided that you also in­clude the orig­i­nal English ver­sion of this Li­cense and the orig­i­nal ver­sions of those no­tices and dis­claimers. In case of a dis­agree­ment be­tween the trans­la­tion and the orig­i­nal ver­sion of this Li­cense or a no­tice or dis­claimer, the orig­i­nal ver­sion will pre­vail.

If a sec­tion in the Doc­u­ment is En­ti­tled “Ac­knowl­edge­ments”, “Ded­i­ca­tions”, or “His­tory”, the re­quire­ment (sec­tion 4) to Pre­serve its Ti­tle (sec­tion 1) will typ­i­cally re­quire chang­ing the ac­tual ti­tle.


You may not copy, mod­ify, sub­li­cense, or dis­tribute the Doc­u­ment ex­cept as ex­pressly pro­vided un­der this Li­cense. Any at­tempt oth­er­wise to copy, mod­ify, sub­li­cense, or dis­tribute it is void, and will au­to­mat­i­cally ter­mi­nate your rights un­der this Li­cense.

How­ever, if you cease all vi­o­la­tion of this Li­cense, then your li­cense from a par­tic­u­lar copy­right holder is re­in­stated (a) pro­vi­sion­ally, un­less and un­til the copy­right holder ex­plic­itly and fi­nally ter­mi­nates your li­cense, and (b) per­ma­nently, if the copy­right holder fails to no­tify you of the vi­o­la­tion by some rea­son­able means prior to 60 days af­ter the ces­sa­tion.

More­over, your li­cense from a par­tic­u­lar copy­right holder is re­in­stated per­ma­nently if the copy­right holder no­ti­fies you of the vi­o­la­tion by some rea­son­able means, this is the first time you have re­ceived no­tice of vi­o­la­tion of this Li­cense (for any work) from that copy­right holder, and you cure the vi­o­la­tion prior to 30 days af­ter your re­ceipt of the no­tice.

Ter­mi­na­tion of your rights un­der this sec­tion does not ter­mi­nate the li­censes of par­ties who have re­ceived copies or rights from you un­der this Li­cense. If your rights have been ter­mi­nated and not per­ma­nently re­in­stated, re­ceipt of a copy of some or all of the same ma­te­rial does not give you any rights to use it.


The Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion may pub­lish new, re­vised ver­sions of the GNU Free Doc­u­men­ta­tion Li­cense from time to time. Such new ver­sions will be sim­i­lar in spirit to the present ver­sion, but may dif­fer in de­tail to ad­dress new prob­lems or con­cerns. See­left/.

Each ver­sion of the Li­cense is given a dis­tin­guish­ing ver­sion num­ber. If the Doc­u­ment spec­i­fies that a par­tic­u­lar num­bered ver­sion of this Li­cense “or any later ver­sion” ap­plies to it, you have the op­tion of fol­low­ing the terms and con­di­tions ei­ther of that spec­i­fied ver­sion or of any later ver­sion that has been pub­lished (not as a draft) by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion. If the Doc­u­ment does not spec­ify a ver­sion num­ber of this Li­cense, you may choose any ver­sion ever pub­lished (not as a draft) by the Free Soft­ware Foun­da­tion. If the Doc­u­ment spec­i­fies that a proxy can de­cide which fu­ture ver­sions of this Li­cense can be used, that proxy's pub­lic state­ment of ac­cep­tance of a ver­sion per­ma­nently au­tho­rizes you to choose that ver­sion for the Doc­u­ment.


“Mas­sive Mul­ti­au­thor Col­lab­o­ra­tion Site” (or “MMC Site”) means any World Wide Web server that pub­lishes copy­rightable works and also pro­vides promi­nent fa­cil­i­ties for any­body to edit those works. A pub­lic wiki that any­body can edit is an ex­am­ple of such a server. A “Mas­sive Mul­ti­au­thor Col­lab­o­ra­tion” (or “MMC”) con­tained in the site means any set of copy­rightable works thus pub­lished on the MMC site.

“CC-BY-SA” means the Creative Com­mons At­tri­bu­tion-Share Alike 3.0 li­cense pub­lished by Creative Com­mons Cor­po­ra­tion, a not-for-profit cor­po­ra­tion with a prin­ci­pal place of busi­ness in San Fran­cisco, Cal­i­for­nia, as well as fu­ture copy­left ver­sions of that li­cense pub­lished by that same or­ga­ni­za­tion.

“In­cor­po­rate” means to pub­lish or re­pub­lish a Doc­u­ment, in whole or in part, as part of an­other Doc­u­ment.

An MMC is “el­i­gi­ble for re­li­cens­ing” if it is li­censed un­der this Li­cense, and if all works that were first pub­lished un­der this Li­cense some­where other than this MMC, and sub­se­quently in­cor­po­rated in whole or in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or in­vari­ant sec­tions, and (2) were thus in­cor­po­rated prior to Novem­ber 1, 2008.

The op­er­a­tor of an MMC Site may re­pub­lish an MMC con­tained in the site un­der CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time be­fore Au­gust 1, 2009, pro­vided the MMC is el­i­gi­ble for re­li­cens­ing.

ADDENDUM: How to use this Li­cense for your doc­u­ments

To use this Li­cense in a doc­u­ment you have writ­ten, in­clude a copy of the Li­cense in the doc­u­ment and put the fol­low­ing copy­right and li­cense no­tices just af­ter the ti­tle page:

    Copyright (C)  YEAR  YOUR NAME.
    Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
    under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
    or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
    with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
    A copy of the license is included in the section entitled “GNU
    Free Documentation License”.

If you have In­vari­ant Sec­tions, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts, re­place the “with … Texts.” line with this:

    with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
    Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.

If you have In­vari­ant Sec­tions with­out Cover Texts, or some other com­bi­na­tion of the three, merge those two al­ter­na­tives to suit the sit­u­a­tion.

If your doc­u­ment con­tains non­triv­ial ex­am­ples of pro­gram code, we rec­om­mend re­leas­ing these ex­am­ples in par­al­lel un­der your choice of free soft­ware li­cense, such as the GNU Gen­eral Public Li­cense, to per­mit their use in free soft­ware.


Fur­ther in­for­ma­tion about this type of li­cense is avail­able from GNU.

Attention Please check the soft­ware's li­cense be­fore us­ing the soft­ware.

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